The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice

The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice

MODULE 3

The History of the U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice

Exercise 1. Read the text using the dictionary and making notes. Make up a list of essential words and phrases from the text.

PART I

By the 1700s, England had established 13 colonies in the eastern part of what is now the The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice United States. Most of the colonists were English or from other parts of the British Isles, such as Scotland, Ireland and Wales (there were also, however, many Germans in Pennsylvania, Swedes in Delaware and Dutch in New York, which was originally the Dutch colony of New Netherlands but was The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice captured by Britain in 1664).

As time passed, the colonies began to resent the governing power that Britain exercised over them. The British government required them to pay taxes to help pay for colonial expenses, but gave them no voice in passing the tax law. British troops were stationed in The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice the colonies and some people were forced to house the troops in their homes. The British motherland determined what the colonies could produce and with whom they could trade.

In 1774, a group of leaders from the colonies met and formed The Continental Congress, which became the governing body of The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice the United States during the American Revolution.

On July 4, 1776, the Continental Congress issued а Declaration of Independence, primarily written by Thomas Jefferson, a farmer and a lawyer from the colony of Virginia. This document declared that from that time the “United Colonies” were no longer colonies of England The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice. The Declaration described them as “free and independent states” and officially named them the United States of America.

With the help from France, England’s old enemy, and from other Europeans, the American armies, led by George Washington, a surveyor and gentleman farmer from Virginia, won the War of Independence. The The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice peace treaty signed in 1783 set the western boundaries of the new nation at the Mississippi River.

When peace came, the United States was not one unified nation as it is today. Each new state had its own government and was organized very much like an independent nation. After The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice the war was won, the country’s administration would handle only problems and needs that the individual states could not handle alone. It would raise money to pay off debts of the war, establish a money system and deal with foreign nations in making treaties. The agreement that set up this The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice plan of cooperation was called the Articles of Confederation. Eventually this agreement failed because the states did not cooperate with country’s administration and with each other. When the United States needed money to pay the national army or to pay debts owed to France and other The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice nations, some states refused to contribute.

Vocabulary Notes

to capture захватывать, брать силой

to resent негодовать, возмущаться

to pass the law принять закон

to house the troops располагать войска

the governing body руководящий орган

Declaration of Independence Декларация независимости

surveyor (тут) землемер, топограф

peace treaty мирный контракт

the Articles of Confederation Статьи Конфедерации (1-ая конституция США, принятая The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice в 1777. Оставалась в силе до 1789).

to contribute делать пожертвования, взносы

Exercise 2. Explain the meaning of the following words used in the text: colonists; to exercise one’s power; expenses;to pass the law; the governing body; independent states; old enemy; surveyor; to sign a treaty;to handle a problem; to raise money The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice; the agreement failed; to refuse to contribute.

Exercise 3. Answer the following questions.

1. How many colonies had been established on the eastern coast of North America by 1700s?

2. Who were the founders of New York City?

3. What were the reasons for demanding independence?

4. Why was the Continental Congress The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice formed?

5. When was the Declaration of Independence issued and what did it declare?

6. Who was the author of the document?

7. What are the Articles of Confederation?

8. When was the peace treaty signed?

9. What problems was the USA government facing under the Articles of Confederation?

Exercise 4. Study the following chart.

The passive The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice verb forms are: to be + past participle (pp) of the main verb Examples
present simple: am/is/are + pp The office is cleaned twice a week.
present continuous: am/is/are being + pp The office is being cleaned now.
past simple: was/were + pp The office was cleaned The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice last week.
past continuous: was/were being + pp The office was being cleaned when the boss arrived.
present perfect simple: have/has been + pp The office has not been cleaned yet.
past perfect simple: had been + pp The office had been cleaned by two o’clock.
future simple The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice: will be + pp The office will be cleaned tomorrow.
Questions are formed by putting the verb to be before the subject Is your car being serviced?
Negations are formed with the word not The furniture has not been delivered yet.
The passive of infinitives is like this: to be + pp The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice He wants to be told the truth.
The passive of modal verbs is like this: modal verb + be + pp The roof of the house must be repaired.

Exercise 5. Look through Part I of the textto find passive verb forms. Translate the sentences in which they are used.

Exercise 6. Complete the sentences with The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice the correct form of the passive. Use the verbs in brackets.

1. Budget airlines nowadays ____ often ____ by passengers. (criticize)

2. A few weeks ago, I ____ to join this famous club. (invite)

3. Sorry, but your car ____ until next Monday. (can’t, repair)

4. Since 1990s, many of our toys and games ____ from China. (import The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice)

5. She ____ just ____ for an Oscar. (nominate)

6. As far as I’m concerned, he ____ to prison. (should, send)

7. ____ the results of the survey ____ yet? (announce)

8. Are you sure the staff ____ about the new regulations last week? (inform)

9. We ____ not to use our work computers to send personal emails. (ask The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice)

10. Borders between countries ____ day and night. (guard)

11. We can’t go over the bridge because it ____ at the moment. (repair)

12. Under the Customs regulations, these travelers ____ for failure to declare their currency. (punish)

Exercise 7. Make up 5 sentences with passive verb forms to cover the contents of Part I.

Exercise 8. Read Part The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice II of the text using the dictionary and making notes.

PART II

The story of the United States Customs Service is the story of America itself.

Founded in 1789, July 31, to protect this struggling new Nation from bankruptcy, Customs has come to the aid and protection of the Republic and The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice its people for two centuries. Customs gave America its first source of revenue, became its first Federal law enforcement agency, and has affected and been affected by the Nation’s history from the earliest days to the present.

After declaring independence in 1776, the struggling young Nation found itself The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice on the brink of bankruptcy. During the brief period under the Articles of Confederation, in which each state assessed Customs duties against its neighbors, the Continental Congress learned that the national treasury could not rely upon the states for funds.

When, in 1789, Congress first assembled in New York The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice City to launch this country on its proper course, it had one overriding concern: Money. Where to find it, how to collect it, how to keep it rolling in? Fighting a revolution had left the national cupboard bare: such was the price of liberty.

No less than a guiding The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice light James Madison of Virginia (the 4th president later on) proposed the scheme that would eventually make this Nation solvent: impose a duty on imports and create a well-managed agency to ensure its due collection. Responding to an urgent need for revenue, the First Congress passed, and President Washington The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice signed, the Tariff Act of July 4, 1789. It established a tariff and a system for collecting duties.

The Act was considered so important that the press of the day hailed it as a “The Second Declaration of Independence.” Customs districts, ports of entry, and the machinery for appointing Customs officers and prescribing The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice their duties were established July 31, 1789 – one day before the Tariff Act took effect. President Washington then nominated 59 Collectors of Customs in the 11 states and more than 40 other officers to staff the new Customs Service.

The entire Service was placed then under the Treasury Department, headed by 32-year-old The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton. Hamilton’s tireless, dedicated commitment to the new Service set an early standard for Customs officials.

Vocabulary Notes

to found основывать, учреждать, создавать

struggling (находящийся) в бедственном положении

law enforcement agency правоприменяющий, правоохранительный орган

to affect оказывать воздействие, воздействие

on the brink of bankruptcy на грани банкротства

national treasury The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice муниципальная казна

overriding важный; доминирующий

a guiding light путеводная звезда

solvent платёжеспособный

dedicated commitment (тут) преданность

Exercise 9. Explain the meaning of the following words used in the text: struggling nation; law enforcement agency; on the brink of bankruptcy; the national treasury; to launch this country on its proper course; the national cupboard; a guiding The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice light;solvent; the machinery for appointing Customs officers; the Tariff Act took effect; to set an early standard for Customs officials.

Exercise 10. Answer the following questions.

1. Why did the young Nation find itself on the brink of bankruptcy?

2. What was the main concern of the first Congress assembly in 1789?

3. Who The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice proposed the scheme to make the Nation solvent?

4. What was the solution?

5. What is called the “Second Declaration of Independence”?

6. When did the Tariff Act take effect and what did it establish?

7. How many Collectors of Customs were nominated by President Washington?

8. Under which Department was the The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice U.S. Customs Service placed?

9. Who was the first head of the Service?

Exercise 11. Study the following chart.

To turn a sentence from the active into the passive: a) The object of the active sentence becomes the subject in the passive sentence. b) The active verb changes into The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice a passive form. c) The subject of the active sentence becomes the agent. Examples: present simple: She types the letters. >The letters are typed. present continuous: She is typing the letters. >The letters are being typed. past simple: She typed the letters. >The letters were typed. past continuous: She was typing the The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice letters. >The letters were being typed. present perfect simple: She has typed the letters. >The letters have been typed. past perfect simple: She had typed the letters. >The letters had been typed. future simple infinitive: She will type the letters. >The letters will be typed. modals The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice (modal + be + pp): She has to type the letters. >The letters have to be typed.

Exercise 12 Rewrite the sentences in the passive.

1. They use this information is strictly for preventing and combating terrorism and serious criminal offenses.

2. The officers can use IBIS (Interagency Border Inspection System) terminals to access records on wanted persons The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice and stolen vehicles.

3. Agriculture experts may detain food in the interest of preventing possible outbreak of foreign diseases in the U.S.

4. They had stopped him for a spot check in the Green Channel, and the penalty for breaking the law was pretty stiff.

5. The Customs The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice inspect the entire volume of cargo and mail by means of X-ray television endoscopes.

6. We are sure they will seize and destroy these illegal products.

7. If you are one of the travelers selected for an examination, they will treat you in a courteous and professional manner.

8. We allowed The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice the officials to use their discretion about “reasonable” quantities (for personal use) of products.

9. A team with dogs specially trained to detect explosives was patrolling the terminal building.

10. In July 1789 the First Congress of the United States established a system of tariffs on imported “goods and merchandises” in order to fund the The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice new federal government.

Exercise 13. Read Part III of the text using the dictionary and making notes.

PART III

Because Customs was, in essence, the nation’s civil service in the early years, Congress would turn to it time and again to take charge of the nation’s diverse needs The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice. When America needed lighthouses, for example, to guide ships safely past dangerous shallows, it turned to Customs to build those lighthouses.

From 1791 to 1850 Customs supervised the construction of more than 300 lighthouses, from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico.

When America needed a system to pension agents The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice to honor the debts owed to its Revolutionary War heroes it turned to Customs as the first “Veteran’s Administration.”

When America needed to provide for the relief of sick and disabled seamen, it turned to Customs as the first public health service.

When America needed armed revenue cutters The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice to patrol its shores, it turned to Customs to direct those ships, making Customs the first coast guard. When, in 1830, America needed to devise a system of “uniform authentic weights and measures” to ensure for merchants and consumers alike that a pound was indeed a pound, it turned to Customs, the The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice first “Bureau of Standards.” And when masses of immigrants began seeking refuge in America, Congress turned to Customs to manage the influx.

It was the first Immigration and Naturalization Service. This was and continues to be the character of Customs: always ready to serve the Nation, to accept any The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice challenge in time of peace or war to protect, secure, and defend.

More than 150 years ago, for example, this country first began its battle against pornography. It was the Customs Service whom Congress first called upon to protect the public. More than 100 years ago, when American manufactured products The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice started to become the targets of unscrupulous counterfeiters, it was Customs who first entered the fray to protect the rights of American manufacturers.

Nearly 90 years ago, when drug abuse first showed itself as the corruptive force it is, it was Customs who мейд the first efforts to close ranks in The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice defending the nation in its war on drugs.

The traditional U.S. Customs Service Mission, as outlined in the Tariff Act of 1930 was threefold:

• To assess and collect customs duties on imported merchandise.

• To prevent fraud and smuggling.

• To control carriers, persons, and articles entering and departing the The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice United States.

Vocabulary Notes

civil service муниципальная штатская служба

diverse needs различные нужды

disabled страдающий от увечья, заболевания; нетрудоспособный

revenue cutter таможенное судно

devise a system разрабатывать систему

to seek refuge находить убежище

to enter the fray вступать в единоборство

to close ranks замкнуть ряды; объединиться

Exercise 14. Explain the meaning of the following words used in the text The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice: to turn to Customs; the nation’s diverse needs; shallows; to pension agents; to provide for the relief; public health service; a pound was indeed a pound; to manage the influx (of refugees); to accept any challenge; unscrupulous counterfeiters; to enter the fray;to close ranks in defending The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice the nation; to prevent fraud and smuggling.

Exercise 15. Scan the text and make a statement of 5-8 sentences summarizing the contents of it.

Exercise 16. Study the following chart.

With verbs which take two objects, such as ask, bring, tell, send, show, teach, promise, offer, give, pay, lend,etc., we can form the The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice passive in two ways. Active:Someone sentme some flowers. Passive:a) I was sentsome flowers. b)Some flowers were sentto me.
When the verb of the active sentence is followed by a preposition, the preposition is kept in the passive sentence as well. e.g. Burglars broke The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice into our house last night. Our house was broken into last night.

Exercise 17. Rewrite the sentences in the passive in both ways, if possible. Consult the chart.

1. They offered him a new job. 2. Lisa is sending them an invitation. 3. Jack will show me how to operate this device. 4. They The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice paid him a lot of money for the job. 5. They will teach you a lesson. 6. They gave him two days to think it over. 7. They gave us no explanation. 8. Did you send the parcel yourself? 9. They can’t tell her the truth. 10. He will lend me the money for the holiday The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice. 11. Smugglers often use late booked or cash tickets. 12. The officer should examine the passport and establish reasons for frequency of travel. 13. They have changed the date of the delivery. 14. They are going to hold the next conference in Atlanta, GA. 15. People say the police have arrested three men after The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice the accident.

Exercise 18. Rewrite the sentences in the passive.

1. The Customs officers often ask travelers this kind of question.

2. They teach us foreign languages at the Academy.

3. The chief asked them to хэнд in their report by the end of the day.

4. They listened to his lectures with great interest.

5. You The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice must think the matter over.

6. They looked at the picture with admiration.

7. The government charges CBP with keeping terrorists and terrorist weapons out of the country while enforcing hundreds of U.S. laws.

8. The experts estimate the total domestic value for the shipments to be more The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice than $335,000.

9. We can’t speak of such important matters in public.

10. We must call the police immediately.

11. They were televising the examination procedure for the court.

12. Did they produce this counterfeit painting in France?

Exercise 19. Read some facts from the history of the U.S. Customs Service. Translate the The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice following paragraph twice: yourself and with the aid of any computer translation system. Which translation do you like best? Discuss the details with another student.

In 1956 the U.S. Border Patrol Canine Program was initiated with the purchase of surplus military sentry dogs from the U.S. military.

In The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice 1970 the U.S. Customs Canine Program was established. The program initially utilized ex-military sentry dogs and handlers; training took place at Lackland Air Force Base in Texas, where preparing a dog for Customs operations took approximately 2 months.

More than forty years ago, the U.S. Customs Service announced its new detector The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice dog program at ports of entry. Canines had been used by the military as sentry dogs and also on the battlefield for a variety of uses, but they had never been used to sniff out drugs.

In response to the rampant use of recreational drugs by The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice the 60s counterculture, the government launched the first “drug war,” passing new laws and establishing new agencies and programs. As demand for narcotics, especially marijuana, hashish amphetamines and psychedelic drugs ratcheted up, drug smuggling efforts increased and became more sophisticated.

The training was based on a ‘game” of hunting for The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice a “toy,” in this case, a rolled up towel, scented with a narcotic odor. The process was deceptively simple— the toy was hidden and when the dog found it, the handler rewarded the dog with lots of praise and a game of tug-of-war.

The first canines The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice were trained to detect and respond to marijuana and hashish, but by the end of September, the trainers determined that the same dogs could be trained to detect the additional odors of heroin and cocaine.

In 1984 the USDA (Department of Agriculture) establishes a detector dog program at LAX (Los Angeles International Airport The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice). The APHIS (Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service) works with the Customs Service in developing a detector dog program. Beagles are selected as the breed of choice, and the USDA’s detector dogs become known as the Beagle Brigade.

Exercise 20.Make a summary of the above text in 5-7 sentences The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice using verbs in the passive forms.

Here’s the beginning: The U.S. Border Patrol Canine Program was initiated in 1956.

Exercise 21. Read about other facts of the U.S. Customs Service on the official site:

http://nemo.cbp.gov/opa/TimeLine_062409.swf. Tell the class about these facts The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice.


MODULE 3

The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice

Exercise 1. Read the text using the dictionary and making notes. Make up a list of essential words and phrases from the text.

PART I

Since the 1960s, Customs officers have faced the almost overwhelming task of fighting the influx of opium, heroin, cocaine The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice, hashish, marijuana, and amphetamines into the United States. A unique tool in Customs' drug fight is its force of drug detector dogs, their trainers, and the Customs officers who work with these canine detectors.

First used on a wide scale in 1970, Customs narcotic detector dogs save countless man The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice-hours in locating narcotics in vehicles, mail, unaccompanied baggage, and on cargo ships. A dog and his handler can check 500 packages in 30 minutes; it would take a Customs mail examiner several days to inspect as many. At border ports, a dog can inspect a vehicle in about two minutes; the same The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice search by a Customs inspector would take at least 20 minutes.

The seizure of contraband and the continuing efforts to eliminate illegal traffic in narcotics and other drugs are some of the more dramatic episodes in Customs Service history. Today these tasks are мейд easier by the The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice use of modern technologies and by improved equipment.

Customs fleet of specially fitted interdiction aircraft pursues would-be smugglers to remote landing spots in difficult terrain. Science and analytical research assist Customs officers in their efforts to stop illegal and fraudulent activities. The Customs Service maintains numerous laboratories, where sophisticated The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice equipment analyzes certain imports to determine their appropriate classification.

Computer technology has also increased and accelerated Customs' ability to perform surveillance and enforcement missions and has enhanced its role as registrar of statistics vital to U.S. trade, commerce, and security. In 1969 the Treasury Enforcement Communications Systems (TECS) was introduced to The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice help Customs perform instant checks on suspicious travelers, vessels, aircraft, and importers, and to expedite the processing of law-abiding travelers.

Vocabulary Notes

to face the task стоять перед выполнением задачки

influx приток, наплыв

to use on a wide scale обширно использовать

man-hours трудовые затраты в человеко-часах

fleet парк (тс The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice)

interdiction воспрещение, препятствование нелегальной деятельности

difficult terrain труднопроходимая местность

surveillance наблюдение, контроль

registrar of statistics регистратор статистических данных

Exercise 2. Explain the meaning of the following words used in the text: overwhelming task; canine detectors; to use on a wide scale; to save countless man-hours; a dog handler; mail examiner; to eliminate illegal traffic; dramatic The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice episodes in the history; would-be smugglers; to stop illegal and fraudulent activities; sophisticated equipment; surveillance and enforcement missions; vitalstatistics; law-abiding travelers.

Exercise 3.Make up questions to Part I and ask your fellow students to answer them.

Exercise 4. Scan Part I of the text and make a The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice statement of 5-8 sentences summarizing the contents of it.

Exercise 5. Turn the following sentences into the active voice. Where no agent is mentioned one must be supplied.

1. The first canines were trained to detect and respond to marijuana and hashish.

2. The same dogs could be trained to detect the additional odors of heroin The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice and cocaine.

3. The toy was hidden and when the dog found it, the handler rewarded the dog with lots of praise.

4. At first, beagles were selected as the breed of choice.

5. Canines had been used by the military as sentry dogs and also on the battlefield for a variety of uses.

6. Today a The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice wide range of materials is used as the reward in the training process.

7. The shipments were targeted by the CBP Commercial Targeting andAnalysis Center (CTAC).

8. Thanks to the personnel of the CTAC, no harm was caused by the unsafe imported products.

9. CBP is charged with keeping terrorists and terrorist weapons out The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice of the country while enforcing hundreds of U.S. laws.

10. The document reading kiosks are positioned before the primary inspection booth and can scan the entry document of a traveler before arrival at the inspection station.

11. Customs special agents are recognized as being among the finest criminal investigators in the The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice world.

12. To accomplish the goals of the Center, the participating government agencies have been developed.

Exercise 6. Translate the following paragraphs twice: yourself and with the aid of any computer translation system. Which translation do you like best? Discuss the details with another student.

TECS is the updated and modified version The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice of the former Treasury Enforcement Communications System. It is an information-sharing platform, which allows users to access different databases that may be maintained on the platform or accessed through the platform, and the name of a system of records that include temporary and permanent enforcement, inspection, and operational records relevant The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice to the anti-terrorism and law enforcement mission of CBP and numerous other federal agencies that it supports. TECS not only provides a platform for interaction between these databases and defined TECS users, but also serves as a data repository to support law enforcement “lookouts”, border screening, and reporting The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice for CBP’s primary and secondary inspection processes.

As part of their mission responsibilities, CBP officers and Border Patrol agents may enter free-form text reports based upon their observations and interactions with the public at the border. CBP officers and Border Patrol agents create MOIRs (Memoranda of The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice Information Received), when using TECS, to document an observation relating to an encounter with a traveler, a memorable event, or noteworthy item of information particularly when they observe behavior that may be indicative of intelligence gathering or preoperational planning related to terrorism, criminal, or other illicit intention.

Exercise 7.Make The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice a summary of the above text in 5-7 short sentences using verbs in the passive forms.

Here’s the beginning: TECS platform is used to access different databases.

Exercise 8. Watch some YouTube videos or others about dogs inspecting passengers and vehicles at border ports. Make notes and be ready to discuss the The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice advantages of this unique tool in Customs' drug fight.

Exercise 9. Read Part II of the text using the dictionary and making notes.

PART II

Eleven days after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, Pennsylvania Governor Tom Ridge was appointed as the first Director of the Office of Homeland Security in the White House The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice. The office oversaw and coordinated a comprehensive national strategy to safeguard the country against terrorism and respond to any future attacks.

With the passage of the Homeland Security Act by Congress in November 2002, the Department of Homeland Security formally came into being as a stand-alone, Cabinet-level department The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice. On March 1, 2003, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security began its operations, unifying 22 agencies within a single department with a common mission: to safeguard America and integrate the Nation’s capabilities to prevent, protect against, respond to, and recover from threats and disasters of all kinds The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice.

Employees from the U.S Customs Service, Immigration and Naturalization Service and Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service came together to create the Bureau of Customs and Border Protection.

The Homeland Security Act of 2002, which established CBP, required the agency to maintain the same level of effort in the traditional customs, immigration The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice and agricultural areas. This included seizing illegal drugs and other contraband, determining the admissibility of people and goods, detaining people attempting to enter the U.S. illegally, protecting agricultural interests from pests and diseases and collecting duties and fees.

While much of the efforts to create The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice seamless services within CBP was unseen by the public, the most visible change was at ports of entry. Before the creation of CBP, travelers to the U.S. had to make two or three separate stops - for immigration inspection, customs inspection, and, if they were carrying food or plants, agriculture inspection The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice - with three separate employees.

To streamline this process, CBP initiated its "one-stop processing" to maximize efficiency for travelers by reengineering separate staff positions into a single CBP officer. In addition to the CBP officers, agriculture specialists were stationed at ports to analyze agriculture imports and examine cargo to The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice protect agricultural and economic interests from harmful pests and diseases.

Vocabulary Notes

to appoint назначать, определять (на должность)

to oversee следить, надзирать; смотреть

to safeguard гарантировать; защищать; охранять

the Department of Homeland Security Департамент внутренней безопасности

seamless плавный; совершающийся без резких переходов

to streamline упрощать, модернизировать (процесс)

efficiency эффективность, результативность

reengineering (тут) объединение

Exercise 10. Explain the The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice meaning of the following words used in the text: to safeguard the country against terrorism; to come into being; Cabinet-level department; threats and disasters; to maintain the same level of effort; to determine the admissibility of people and goods; to enter the U.S. illegally; the most visible change The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice; to streamline the process; to maximize efficiency for travelers; harmful pests and diseases.

Exercise 11.Make up an outline of Part II in 5-7 short sentences using verbs in the passive forms.

Example: In November of 2002 the DHS was created.

Exercise 12. Find and turn the passive sentences from Part II into the active The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice voice. Where no agent is mentioned one must be supplied.

Exercise 13. Translate the last two paragraphs of Part II in a written form making sure that your translation is better than that of the computer.

Exercise 14. Read Part III of the text using the dictionary and making The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice notes.

PART III

The new structure, CBP provided a multi-layered approach that includes collecting and analyzing advance traveler and cargo information, using enhanced law enforcement technical collection capabilities, providing timely analysis of intelligence and information and establishing intelligence-sharing relationships with Federal, state, and local intelligence agencies.

Concurrent with the administrative changes The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice was the continued capitalization of CBP that doubled the number of Border Patrol agents since 2004 and enabled the updating and expansion of border infrastructure. These were coupled to the construction and modernization of ports of entry.

Emerging technology has been deployed as force multipliers along the borders and The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice at ports of entry. To support the work of its officers, CBP placed large-scale Non-Intrusive Inspection (NII) systems at ports of entry. Additionally, CBP deployed backscatter X-ray vans to land ports of entry on the Southwest border. Used in combination with a layered enforcement strategy, these The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice tools gave CBP the capacity to detect contraband, including illicit nuclear or radiological materials. The deployment of NII technologies has also enabled our staff to more efficiently process a significant volume of passengers and trade.

To ensure that CBP meets future challenges in the international trade arena The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice, CBP has developed Centers for Excellence and Expertise. The Centers are designed for a “bi-directional” education between CBP and the trade community that increase CBP’s knowledge of how modern trade works and involves the trade community in building efficiencies that not only facilitate the flow of trade, but also reduce The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice transaction costs for industry.

The ongoing public-private partnerships, capitalization of CBP and systemic refinements give CBP the knowledge, strength of force and the tactical agility to address security risks as they emerge, whether they are along the borders, at ports of entry, in the air or sea or The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice on either side of the nation’s borders.

Vocabulary Notes

a multi-layered approach многоуровневый подход (к решению задачки)

enhanced усовершенствованный, улучшенный

concurrent действующий, происходящий сразу

emerging развивающийся, начинающий существование

Non-Intrusive Inspection неагрессивное, бесконтактное обследование (не меняющее основного режима работы при проведении проверки)

backscatter X-ray van передвижной рентгеновский сканер на The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice базе оборотного рассеивания

challenge (тут) непростая задачка, неувязка

transaction costs издержки на деловые операции, сделки

public-private partnership проект сотрудничества муниципального и личного секторов

systemic refinements усовершенствование системы

Exercise 15. Explain the meaning of the following words used in the text: advance traveler and cargo information; timely analysis; intelligence-sharing relationships; to double the number; emerging The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice technology; the capacity to detect contraband; illicit materials; to meet future challenges; the trade community; to build efficiency; to facilitate the flow of trade; public-private partnership; tactical agility.

Exercise 16. Match the verbs with word combinations from Part III of the text and translate them into Russian The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice.

1. to provide a. future challenges
2. to establish b. efficiency
3. to enable c. a multi-layered approach
4. to deploy d. the number
5. to double e. the updating of border infrastructure
6. to place f. the flow of trade
7. to detect g. timely analysis
8. to process h. intelligence-sharing relationships
9. to meet i The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice. emerging technology
10. to increase j. illicit materials
11. to build k. backscatter X-ray vans
12. to facilitate l. CBP’s knowledge

Exercise 17.Make up an outline of Part III in 10 short sentences using verbs in thepassive voice.

Example: A multi-layered approach was provided by CBP to analyze advance traveler The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice and cargo information.

Exercise 18. Translate the following passage in a written form making sure that your translation is better than that of the computer.

Backscatter X-ray is an advanced X-ray imaging technology. Traditional X-ray machines detect hard and soft materials by the variation in transmission through the target The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice. In contrast, backscatter X-ray detects the radiation that reflects from the target. It has potential applications where less-destructive examination is required, and can be used if only one side of the target is available for examination.

The technology is one of two types of whole body The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice imaging technologies being used to perform full-body scans of airline passengers to detect hidden weapons, tools, liquids, narcotics, currency, and other contraband. A competing technology is millimeter wave scanner. These airport security machines are also referred to as "body scanner", "whole body imager (WBI)", and "security scanner The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice".

Exercise 19.Do you know any other effective passenger control means? Search through the Internet and tell the class about the result.

Exercise 20.Fill in theactive or passive form of the verbs in brackets. Translate the sentences into Russian.

1. In 2004 CBP (to unveil) new highly sophisticated radiation portal monitors that (to scan The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice) cargo shipments in Jersey City, N.J.

2. The technology (to use) to better prevent the smuggling of radiological materials through U.S. seaports.

3. The Act of the First Congress of the United States (to establish) the Department of the Treasury, responsible for collection and protection of U.S The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice. revenue.

4. Customs special agents effectively (to target) the illegal export of high-technology products and sophisticated weaponry destined for prohibited markets.

5. Customs special agents (to recognize) as being among the finest criminal investigators in the world.

6. As the primary border interdiction agency, U.S. Customs (to face) a complex, multifaceted drug The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice threat.

7. This emerging technology (to put) in service of drug interdiction efforts as well as protecting public revenue.

8. Another effective technology (to use) within the Unmanned Aircraft System.

9. These piloted aircraft (to provide) aerial surveillance by investigating sensor activity in remote areas.

10. This type of observations (to The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice allow) CBP officers and Border Patrol agents(to target) illicit activities on the ground.

11. The first 59 customs collection districts (to establish) in the 11 states by the5th Act of the First Congress of the United States on July 31, 1789.

12. Ports of entry, under the jurisdiction of a Collector of Customs, (to The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice designate) by the Act.

Exercise 21.Watch some videos about working forCBP. Make a list of activities mentioned in the videos. Compare your list with your partner’s and present the result to class. To begin with, visit the following site:

http://www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/careers/customs The U.S. Customs Service. Grammar: Passive Voice_careers/we_are_cbp.xml


MODULE 3


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