The third industrial revolution

1THE first industrial revolution began in Britain in the late 18th century, with the mechanisation of the textile industry. Tasks previously done laboriously by хэнд in hundreds of weavers' cottages were brought together in a single cotton mill, and the factory was born. The second industrial revolution came in the early 20th The third industrial revolution century, when Henry Форд mastered the moving assembly line and ushered in the age of mass production. The first two industrial revolutions мейд people richer and more urban. Now a third revolution is under way. Manufacturing is going digital. This could change not just business, but much else The third industrial revolution besides.

2A number of remarkable technologies are converging: clever software, novel materials, more dexterous robots, new processes (notably three-dimensional printing) and a whole range of web-based services. The factory of the past was based on cranking out zillionsof identical products: Форд famously said that car-buyers could The third industrial revolution have any colour they liked, as long as it was black. But the cost of producing much smaller batches of a wider variety, with each product tailored precisely to each customer's whims, is falling. The factory of the future will фокус on mass customization—and may look more The third industrial revolution like those weavers' cottages than Форд's assembly line.

3The old way of making things involved taking lots of parts and screwingor weldingthem together. Now a product can be designed on a computer and “printed” on a 3D printer, which creates a solid objectby building up successivelayers of material. The The third industrial revolution digital design can be tweakedwith a few mouseclicks. The 3D printer can run unattended, and can make many things which are too complex for a traditional factory to handle. In time, these amazing machines may be able to make almost anything, anywhere—from your garage to an The third industrial revolution African village.

4The applications of 3D printing are especially mind-boggling. Already, hearing aids and high-tech parts of military jets are being printed in customized shapes. The geography of supply chains will change. An engineer working in the middle of a desert who finds he lacks a The third industrial revolution certain tool no longer has to have it delivered from the nearest city. He can simply download the design and print it. The days when projects ground to a haltfor want of a piece of kit, or when customers complained that they could no longer find spare parts for things they had The third industrial revolution bought, will one day seem quaint.

5Other changes are nearlyas momentous. New materials are lighter, stronger and more durable than the old ones. Carbon fibre is replacing steel and aluminium in products ranging from aeroplanes to mountain bikes. New techniques let engineers shape objects at a tiny scale. Nanotechnology The third industrial revolution is giving products enhanced features, such as bandages that help heal cuts, engines that run more efficiently and crockerythat cleans more easily. Genetically engineered viruses are being developed to make items such as batteries. And with the internet allowing ever more designers to collaborate on new products, the The third industrial revolution barriers to entry are falling. Форд needed heapsof capital to build his colossal River Rouge factory; his modern equivalent can start with little besides a laptop and a hunger to invent.

6Like all revolutions, this one will be disruptive. Digital technology has already rocked the media and The third industrial revolution retailing industries, just as cotton mills crushed хэнд loomsand the Model Tput farriersout of work. Many people will look at the factories of the -future and shudder. They will not be full of grimy machines manned by men in oily overalls. Many will be squeaky clean—and almost deserted The third industrial revolution. Some carmakers already produce twice as many vehicles per employee as they did only a decade or so ago. Most jobs will not be on the factory floor but in the offices nearby, which will be full of designers, engineers, IT specialists, logistics experts, marketing staff and other professionals. The manufacturing jobs The third industrial revolution of the future will require more skills. Many dull, repetitive tasks will become obsolete: you no longer need riveterswhen a product has no rivets.

7The revolution will affect not only how things are мейд, but where. Factories used to move to low-wage countries to curb labour The third industrial revolution costs. But labour costs are growing less and less important: a $499 first-generation iPad included only about $33 of manufacturing labour, of which the final assembly in China accounted for just $8. Offshore production is increasingly moving back to rich countries not because Chinese wages are rising, but because companies now want to The third industrial revolution be closer to their customers so that they can respond more quickly to changes in demand. And some products are so sophisticated that it helps to have the people who design them and the people who make them in the same place. The Boston Consulting Group reckons that The third industrial revolution in areas such as transport, computers, fabricated metalsand machinery, 10-30% of the goods that America now imports from China could be мейд at home by 2020, boosting American output by $20 billion-55 billion a year.

8Consumers will have little difficulty adapting to the new age of better products swiftly delivered The third industrial revolution. Governments, however, may find it harder. Their instinct is to protect industries and companies that already exist, not the start-ups that would destroy them. They showerold factories with subsidies and bullybosses who want to move production abroad. They spend billions backing the new technologies which they, in their wisdom The third industrial revolution, think will prevail. And they clingto a romantic belief that manufacturing is superior to services, let alonefinance.

9None of this makes sense. The lines between manufacturing and services are blurring. Rolls-Royce no longer sells jet engines; it sells the hours that each engine is actually thrustingan aeroplane The third industrial revolution through the sky. Governments have always been lousy at picking winners, and they are likely to become more so, as legions of entrepreneurs and tinkerersswapdesigns online, turn them into products at home and market them globally from a garage. As the revolution rages,governments should stick to the basics: better schools The third industrial revolution for a skilled workforce, clear rules and a level playing field for enterprises of all kinds. Leave the rest to the revolutionaries.

Задание 7.Озаглавьтекаждыйразделтекста.

Задание 8.Укажите, верны (True) либо неверны (False) последующие утверждения. Исправьте неверные утверждения.

1) At present the human civilization has been involved in the second The third industrial revolution industrial revolution.

2) The distinguishing character of the third revolution is that manufacturing becomes digital.

3) In future manufacturing will фокус on mass customization.

4) Numerous changes in producing goods have nothing to do with 3D printers.

5) No revolution has been disruptive.

6) The third revolution won’t affect where things are мейд.

7) Governments The third industrial revolution will have no problems adapting to the new age.

8) Lastly, governments will have to stick to the basics.

Задание 9.Ответьтеписьменнонаследующиевопросы.

1) How many industrial revolutions can you remember?

2) What underlies the disruptive character of all revolutions?

3) Is the third revolution under way these days?

4) Why has the third revolution been defined The third industrial revolution as digital revolution?

5) What examples of the application of 3D printing does the text give?

6) How much will the digital revolution affect the place where products are мейд?

7) Will customers and governments react similarly to the changes caused by the third revolution?

8) What should governments do as the third revolution The third industrial revolution rages?

Задание 10.Напишитекраткоеэссе (10-12предложений) натему «Bigcityproblems». Целью эссе является обозначение заморочек в жизни огромных и малых городов и предложение методов решения неких из их.