The territory of expansion

УФИМСКИЙ Муниципальный НЕФТЯНОЙ

ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ Институт

Кафедра зарубежных языков

РЕФЕРАТ

THE VIKINGS

Выполнил: Богданов Владислав (гр. БМП-14-03)

Управляющий: к. филол. н., доцент Лопатина Е.В.

Уфа 2015

Contents

Introduction ................................................................................................... 3

Chapter I The territory of expansion ……………………………………… 5

Chapter II The religion of the Vikings ......................................................... 7

Chapter III Family and social structure ......................................................... 11

3.1 The relationships between the wife and the husband ............... 11

3.2 Children The territory of expansion ……………………………………………………… 11

3.3 The Vikings social classes …………………………………… 12

Chapter IV Weapons and warfare …………………………………………. 14

4.1 Spear …………………………………………………………. 14

4.2 Sword ……………………………………………………… 15

4.3 Shields and helmets ………………………………………… 16

4.4 The Viking axe ……………………………………………… 17

4.5 Ships ………………………………………………………… 19

Chapter V The Viking culture …………………………………………… 21

5.1 Literature and language …………………………………… 21

5.2 Runestones ………………………………………………… 22

5.3 Burial sites ………………………………………………… 23

5.4 Farming and cuisine ………………………………………… 24

5.5 Sports and entertainment …………………………………… 25

Conclusion ………………………………………………………………… 27

Bibliography ……………………………………………………………… 28

Introduction

Over a period of many centuries there were a huge number of different nations The territory of expansion in our world. Some of these nations are still alive, but others were extinct. Our report is devoted to one of these nations, which were great and warlike- the Vikings. They were called “Northern people” in Europe, “Normans” in France, “Danes” in Germany, “Warangs” in Byzantium and “Vikings” in The territory of expansion Ancient Rus.

Vikings were Germanic Norse seafarers who raided and traded from their Scandinavian homelands across wide areas of northern and central Europe, as well as European Russia, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.

The period from the earliest recorded raids in the 790s until the The territory of expansion Norman conquest of England in 1066 is commonly known as the Viking Age of Scandinavian history. Vikings used the Norwegian Sea and Baltic Sea for sea routes to the south. The Normans were descended from Vikings who were given feudal over lordship of areas in northern France – the Duchy of Normandy – in the 10th The territory of expansion century. In that respect, descendants of the Vikings continued to have an influence in northern Europe. Likewise, King Harold Godwinson, the last Anglo-Saxon king of England, had Danish ancestors.

Geographically, a Viking Age may be assigned not only to Scandinavian lands (modern Denmark, Norway and Sweden), but The territory of expansion also to territories under North Germanic dominance, mainly the Danelaw, including Scandinavian York, the administrative centre of the remains of the Kingdom of Northumbria, parts of Mercia, and East Anglia.

Viking navigators opened the road to new lands to the north, west and east, resulting in the foundation of independent The territory of expansion settlements in the Shetland, Orkney, and Faroe Islands; Iceland; and Greenland.

The Vikings explored the northern islands and coasts of the North Atlantic, ventured south to North Africa and east to Russia, Constantinople, and the Middle East. They raided and pillaged, but also engaged in trade, settled wide-ranging colonies, and The territory of expansion acted as mercenaries.

In IX century Vikings conquered Ireland and England, ruined and burned Nantes, Hamburg and Pisa. In 845 one of the most famous jarl –Ragnar Lothbrok entered Paris. The Vikings founded the city Dublin in Ireland and conquered all the east coast. Also they attacked The territory of expansion Arabian Spain and Italy. Descendants of the Vikings – Normans – conquered Naples and the Silician island and founded The Kingdom of both Silicia there.

The most suffering territory was England which was attacked during 3 centuries of the Vikings campaigns. It will never liquidate from the Vikings influence because in 1066 William I the Conqueror The territory of expansion proclaimed himself the King of England.

But the Vikings were not only great conquerors. Being the professional warriors they became mercenaries in Byzantium, Ancient Russ and even Western Europe, where they fought against theirs tribesmen.

In spite of their endless campaigns, the Vikings were good craftsmen The territory of expansion and handicraftsmen. They did it very well; they were good at stock keeping and householding. The Vikings had a reverent attitude to his family, its knowledge and religion. It contributed to the preservation of all the long-standing traditions of the Vikings in every generation. Probably, owing to the preservation of The territory of expansion a family’s memory, they became one of the most powerful nations of our planet history.

Chapter I

The territory of expansion

The birthplace of the Vikings was the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe (the land of Norway, Sweden and Denmark). There was infertile ground and corn failures were very The territory of expansion often. The Vikings even had cruel tradition: in non-harvest years infant girls were taken away to the forest and then they died. Forests and mountains which covered the territory of Scandinavian Peninsula prevented to development of trading.

Today, historians agree, perhaps in one: the Vikings were moving to the The territory of expansion west, and to the east – depending on the place of their residence. It is known that the ancestors of modern inhabitants of Norway, Denmark and southern provinces of Sweden to go camping in a westerly direction, reaching not only to Iceland and Greenland, but also to the borders The territory of expansion of America which called Vinland. But those, who lived across the coast of Baltic sea, preferred to move to the East, their routs extended from Russian rivers to Byzantium borders. North Scotland and Ireland were also interesting for the Vikings. In 840 they founded Dublin, which was the part of Norwegian The territory of expansion ownership until 1171.

There is a well-defined beginning of the Vikings era. Definitely then the monastery of Lindisfarne on the east coast of England was ruthlessly ruined by unknown fierce warriors. French, British and Irish told the stories about that awful day from generation to generation. Must admit that the The territory of expansion Vikings liked robbery and they attacked usually defenseless churches and monasteries. There were discovered totally 4000 swords and spears by archeologists.

Iceland and Greenland were non-inhabited lands those days, so it was also attracted by the Vikings. Iceland is a great example of colonial policy- the clear descendants of The territory of expansion the Norwegian Vikings lives here even in our days. But attempts to establish settlements in Greenland were unsuccessful.

The Vikings did not expand or conquer much into mainland Europe. Their realm was bordered by powerful cultures to the south. Early on it was the Saxons, who occupied Old The territory of expansion Saxony, located in what is now Northern Germany. The Saxons were a fierce and powerful people and were often in conflict with the Vikings. To counter the Saxon aggression and solidify their own presence, the Danes constructed the huge defence fortification of Danevirke in and around Hedeby The territory of expansion.

The motives driving the Viking expansion are a topic of much debate in Nordic history.

One of the explanations is that the Vikings exploited a moment of weakness in the surrounding regions. England suffered from internal divisions and was relatively easy prey given the proximity of many towns to the The territory of expansion sea or to navigable rivers. Lack of organized naval opposition throughout Western Europe allowed Viking ships to travel freely, raiding or trading as opportunity permitted. The decline in the profitability of old trade routes could also have played a role. Trade between western Europe and the rest of The territory of expansion Eurasia suffered a severe blow when the Roman Empire fell in the 5th century. The expansion of Islam in the 7th century had also affected trade with western Europe.

Raids in Europe including raids and settlements from Scandinavia, were not something new and also seen long before the Vikings The territory of expansion came. The Jutes invaded the British Isles three centuries earlier, pouring out from Jutland, before the Danes settled there. The Saxons and the Angles did the same, embarking from mainland Europe. The Viking raids were the first to be documented in writing by eyewitnesses, and they were much larger in The territory of expansion scale and frequency than in previous times.

Facilitated by advanced seafaring skills, and characterized by the longship, Viking activities at times also extended into the Mediterranean littoral, North Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia. Following extended phases of (primarily sea- or river-borne) exploration, expansion and settlement, Viking (Norse The territory of expansion) communities and polities were established in diverse areas of north-western Europe, European Russia, the North Atlantic islands and as far as the north-eastern coast of North America. This period of expansion witnessed the wider dissemination of Norse culture, while simultaneously introducing strong foreign cultural influences into Scandinavia The territory of expansion itself, with profound developmental implications in both directions.

Popular, modern conceptions of the Vikings – the term frequently applied casually to their modern descendants and the inhabitants of modern Scandinavia – often strongly differ from the complex picture that emerges from archaeology and historical sources.

A romanticized picture of Vikings as The territory of expansion noble savages began to emerge in the 18th century; this developed and became widely propagated during the 19th-century Viking revival. Received views of the Vikings as alternatively violent, piratical heathens or as intrepid adventurers owe much to conflicting varieties of the modern Viking myth that had taken shape by The territory of expansion the early 20th century.

Chapter II


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