I.M.Matora

matora@nf.jinr.ru

THE REAL TRUE ELEMENTARY PARTICLES

ELECTRON, MUON AND τ-HADRON

CONTENTS

PREFACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Chapter 1. STRUCTURE OF THE ELECTRON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, . 7

1.1. Relativistic theory of charge circulation in the electron. . . . . . . . . . . . ‘’

Hamiltonian, describing motion of the object The real true elementary particles inside the electron,

and the integrals ά1(t) and x1(t). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ………………

1.3. Trajectory x1(t) and the electron's structure…. . . . . . . . ……………

1.4. Spin, total magnetic flux, magnetic moment, mass,

magnetomechanical ratio and other parameters of the The real true elementary particles electron. . . .

Chapter 2. ELECTRON-POSITRON INTERACTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .,.,,13

Chapter 3. INVARIANT SYMMETRIZED HAMILTONIAN

. OF THE ATOM ………. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . …...,,,..14

3.1. The problem of quantization of the total orbital momentum

and other discords of theory ……………………………. . . . . . .. . . . .

Chapter 4. INTERACTION ENERGY U(r The real true elementary particles12) IN THE SIMPLEST ATOMS . . . . .,,,….17

4.1. The structure of interaction operators in muonium and hydrogen .…

4.2. Operators Ue(r12) ± Um(r12) in positronium…….……………………....…

4.3. Behaviour of U(r12) in the case of e-. and The real true elementary particles e+…. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . ..

Chapter 5. CORRECTIONS TO THE E.V. OF LEVELS E1S, E2S

AND E2P ^ OF POSITRONIUM, MUONIUM AND

HYDROGEN . ………. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. ….24

5.1. The peculiarity of magnetic spin-orbital ionteraction . . . . . . .. . . . . .

5.2. Sublevels with account of The real true elementary particles all first-order corrections . . . ……. . .. . . . .

Chapter 6. COMPARISON OF MEASURED AND CALCULATED

^ INTERVALS BETWEEN SUBLEVELS OF 1S, 2S AND

2P-STATES OF ATOMS . . . . . . . . . . …. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . … . . ……. .. .27

Chapter 7. INTERACTION BETWEEN AN ELECTRON AND

A NEUTRON. . . . . . . . . . …. . . . . . . . . …. . . . . . . . . . …. . . . . . . . . …..28

7.1.The flux density of excited The real true elementary particles electrons in the conductivity zone.. . . . . . . .

2εF

7.2. Surprise invariant εF-1 ∫ f(ε)dε and the real depth of the

0

potential well of the zone ………………………………………………

7.3. The interaction of energetic electrons with UCN …………………….

Chapter 8. ELECTRONS The real true elementary particles AND THE NATURE OF SUPER-ROTATION

OF THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE OF THE EARTH . . . . . . . ….............34

8.1. Ionization and polarization of plasma in the super-rotation layer….. . .

Theory of plasma drift in constant transverse radial elektric,

gravitational, and south The real true elementary particles-to-north magnetic, geofields…………………….

Chapter 9. EJECTION OF SLOW NEUTRONS IS THE MOST PROBABLE

^ MECHANISM FOR FORMATION OF THE SOLAR

WIND AND CORONA……. . . . . …. …. . . . . .…. . . . . . . . . . . . . ……38

Chapter 10. THE DIVERSITY OF PROCESSES INVOLVING

ELECTRONS IN THE OPERATING The real true elementary particles RESONATOR

OF A MICROTRON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . 39

CONCLUSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . …. ……42

LITERATURE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . …….47

APPENDICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

APPENDIX 1. Model of the structure of the electron and muon . . . . …………………49

APPENDIX 2. Cosmic rays: a probable generator of the electrostatic field in

the atmosphere The real true elementary particles of the Earth. . . . . . . . … . . . . . . …. . . . . . ……...53

APPENDIX 3. Inversion of total electric current, generated by a beam of

primary energetic protons in lead . . . . ……… . . . . ……… . . ….60

APPENDIX 4.. Asymptotic model and expression for work function for electron

removal from The real true elementary particles metals and nonmetals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ………….65

APPENDIX 5. Ejection of neutrons by the Sun as a probable source of solar

wind particles . . . . . . . . . . . …. . . . . .. . …. . . . . . . . . . . … ……67

Abstract

In 1981year author of this book revealed the real structure of the electron and

muon [24]. Charge The real true elementary particles quantum е± = -4,803242∙10-10 CGSE in them is uniformly distributed

over the surface of a torus with its big radius R . For e± R =3,87 ∙10-11cm and torus

cross-section radius ρ0 =1, 37 ∙10-93 cm. And charge circulates on The real true elementary particles the torus surface with

vφ = +c (or –c) .

On the basis of this structure, a quantitative analysis of the total (electric and

magnetic) interaction energy between real toroidal particles was performed.

In the The real true elementary particles electron-positron pair, the real asymptotically free well (AFW) has a depth

Ųe-e+~ -3 keV. And Ųµ-µ+~ -0,6MeV. But computed by author in following works the AFW

depth for heavy The real true elementary particles toroidal τ-τ+-hadrons, which still now named leptons, Ųτ- τ+ ~ -11 MeV.

And in AFWτ-τ+ (also, as in AFW e+e- and in muons) magnetic contribution in all AFW

only on <1% less, then contribution electrical).

Ųτ- τ+ ~ -11 MeV The real true elementary particles provides grounds to consider the purely electromagnetic interaction

of the heavy “leptons“ τ-τ+, making up all the protons and neutrons, the universal source

of strong coupling.

PREFACE

Unfortunately, it was only after translation into The real true elementary particles English of Russian text of the book “The Real

Electron”, published by Energoatomizdat in 2006, the author found in the Bolshaya Sovetskaya Encyclopaedia (1974, V.5, pp.448 - 449) the following assessment of the level of knowledge of the The real true elementary particles physical essence of mass, мейд by the well-known scientist Yakov Smorodinsky:

“The nature of mass is a most important unresolved problem of modern physics. It is customary to The real true elementary particles assume that the mass of an elementary particle is determined by fields (electromagnetic, nuclear and others) related to it. But no quantitative theory of mass has been created yet”.

And his estimation happened The real true elementary particles to be a most pleasant surprise for the author:

Y.Smorodinsky's words about the physical essence of mass includes, besides actual magnetic (H) and electric (E) fields excessive (nuclear and others) “fields The real true elementary particles” also. But already at that time, only taking into account E and H adequately would have unambiguously lead any theorist to the same conclusion as the one obtained by the author The real true elementary particles in “The Real Electron” approximately two decades later. The said conclusion consists precisely in that the masses of all true elementary particles (e±, µ± and τ±) and, consequently, of all other (composite) particles The real true elementary particles and natural macroscopic bodies are мейд up merely by electric and magnetic fields. This signifies that both electric and magnetic fields, as well as the gravitational field due to mass have a single The real true elementary particles source: the indivisible, massless charge quantum ±е, uniformly distributed over the surfaces of tori e±, µ± and τ± and eternally circulating along them with |vφ| = |±c|. The author had the idea to write this The real true elementary particles book as early as back in 1981, when he completed his work “Model of electron and muon structure” [24].

In ref. [24], the author managed to reveal both the physical sense of the magnetomecha- nical ratio The real true elementary particles being doubled in the case of the electron, which did not seem normal, and the exact equality of the total magnetic flux, always penetrating the current loop of a particle The real true elementary particles, to its quantum 0. The author was also encouraged by the behaviour of total interaction energies of the magnetic moments and electric charges of the е-е+ ring-particles at small distances being surprizingly similar The real true elementary particles to the asymptotically free behaviour of the interaction energies between partons in a nulceon. These positive emotions, which accompanied the writing of this book, stimulated a prolonged search for the true parameters The real true elementary particles of the most universal, from the point of view of the intensity of its participation in practically all natural phenomena, elementary particle as the electron.

The interpretation of known measurements [10] of The real true elementary particles the root-mean-square radius (rq2)1/2 of the charge distribution in the electron, previously considered to be performed in its center-of-mass reference system (c.m.s.), being proved [9] incorrect happened to be The real true elementary particles an important step toward realizing this book. Actually, measurements of (rq2)1/2 for е- were carried out (practically always – in colliders) in the laboratory reference system (l.s.). This means that The real true elementary particles to obtain the final result for (rq2)1/2 in the electron c.m.s, it was necessary to multiply (rq2)1/2 obtained in [10] by the factor γ = Ecoll/(mc2) (Ecoll is the energy of colliding e- (in The real true elementary particles the l.s.), mc2 is the e- rest energy). Multiplication by γ has clearly proved that all the measured values of (rq2)1/2r. s.. are practically identical: (rq2)1/2r. s..~10-11 cm ~ c The real true elementary particles ~ ħ/(mc) = 3,86·10-11 cm (c is the Compton wavelength of the electron).

Soon after the publication of ref.[9], all attempts to prove experimentally the “pointlike” nature of the electron was stopped.

The The real true elementary particles discovery, that the electron charge -e, distributed uniformly over its toroidal surface, superstable circulate around axes of torus with velocity of light [12], which follows from Dirac's relativistic theory of the electron, significantly boosted of The real true elementary particles work on the book. Here, the radius

R = 3,87∙10-11 cm of the found current loop, which is practically equal to the Compton wavelength of particle с, and its other parameters coincided with the The real true elementary particles parameters predicted in [24].

The axis of the electron current loop coinciding with the axis Oz, that is fixed even in the absence of any external, with respect to the electron The real true elementary particles, magnetic field, owing to conservation of its mechanical moment (spin) happened to be an essentially important property of the circulation revealed. The axis Oz will be fixed even more rigidly in a magnetic The real true elementary particles field. So, the z-projections of both the magnetic momentum and the mechanical momentum s of the electron will always be equal to their absolute values z = and sz = srespectively. Consequently The real true elementary particles, no precession of the electron momenta ever exists.

The author became interested in the investigation of the true properties of the electron already in 1951- 1954, while working under the leadership of V.A.Fock The real true elementary particles, on the thesis “Calculation of the excitation of the 23S- and 21S-levels of a helium atom by electron collision”. And already before 1981, the author published a number of original papers The real true elementary particles on the interaction of electrons with various micro- and macroobjects. Some of them are presented in the Appendices to this book.

INTRODUCTION

Intense studies of the electron have been carried out for over The real true elementary particles 105 years, but many aspects concerning it are still far from having been revealed with certainty. The zigzags in the road leading to comprehension of its properties amazing.

No other elementary particle The real true elementary particles is so abundant in Nature as the electron. At the same time it possesses a quantum of charge, -e, and a mass, that is many times smaller than the masses of all other charged The real true elementary particles particles, i.e. experimental studies of all its properties can be carried out using devices many times more simple than for all other charged elementary particles. But ― and here is a The real true elementary particles paradox ― the results of both experimental and theoretical studies of the electron still exhibit no less than three gross errors.

The first of them consists in the electron's structure being assumed by The real true elementary particles theorists to be pointlike. Its absurdity is evident. But the second error, мейд in all measurements of the actual dimensions of the electron at accelerators without taking into account The real true elementary particles their relativistic reduction, rendered it impossible to understand the essence of the first error.

The third error was мейд by two most autoritative theorists in atomic spectroscopy [25]. In deriving an expression for The real true elementary particles the relativistic correction to the eigenvalue (e.v.) of kinetic energy for the electron they found it to appear to be negative. Truth is known to be the absolute criterion for the The real true elementary particles results of an investigation to be correct in any science. But, here, instead of the truth, the authority of excellent spectroscopists prevailed, and their mistake still continues to be spread around in textbooks and monographs The real true elementary particles.

It is clear that even the mentioned errors were sufficient to block the process of revelation of the true properties of the e-.

Inconsistencies in the cognition process aimed at revelation The real true elementary particles of the true parameters of the electron were noted earlier, also.

Thus, G.Lorentz, back in the beginning of the 20-th century, put forward the idea that ``all forces are more or The real true elementary particles less closely related to the forces, that we study in electromagnetism [1]''. And in 1950 Ya. Frenkel [1] stressed ``the fact that the purely corpuscular model of matter, which we still make use of, is The real true elementary particles not adequate, when one deals with the microworld, since it only reflects the corpuscular aspect of matter, without taking into account its field nature''. But even to-day theoretical calculation The real true elementary particles of the classical electron radius is only based on the contribution to its rest mass of its own electric field E, while the contribution of the magnetic field H, readily calculated from its The real true elementary particles magnetic moment е-, considered, like its charge, to be pointlike (the expression for H is found in ref.[2]), and which is actually many times larger than the contribution due to E The real true elementary particles [3, p.306], is ignored. The reason for not taking into account H may consist in that the constant e2 in

E2 = e2r-4 exceeds by ~22 orders of magnitude е2 in H2 = е2(3cos2θ +1)r -6. But, already The real true elementary particles when r = 10-12 cm, the factor r-6 in H 2 exceeds r-4 in E2 by 24 orders of magnitude. Therefore, if back in the XX century re were to be calculated via the correct expression The real true elementary particles for the mass,

mе = (8πc2)-1 ∫(H2 +E2)d3x =

= (8π)-1 ∫[е2(3cos2θ +1)r-6 + e2r-4]r2sinθdrdθdφ = е2/rem-3 + e2(2rem)-1 ,

with account of both the fields of The real true elementary particles the "pointlike" е-, then, instead of the previous re= 2.82·10-13cm, its correct (with account, also, of H2) value rem = 4.77·10-12 cm would have exceeded re by a factor of ~17. Here, the equality of energy The real true elementary particles densities averaged over the surfaces of the spheres surrounding the e- of radius, r, E2с/(8π) = H2с/(8π), is already realized at rav= 2.7337·10-11cm. And the magnetic energy of a “pointlike'' е-, Um(10-12, rav The real true elementary particles) ~ 54 MeV, localized in the small volume in between the spheres with r =10-12 cm and rav would be ~ 100 times greater than meс2, while the energy of the field E in The real true elementary particles this volume only amounts to ~70 keV. This gigantic concentration of energy of the field H at distances from е- equal to r ~10-12см, even exceeding nuclear scales

(~10-13 cm) illustrates how enormous the interaction The real true elementary particles force is of a “pointlike'' е- with the of other particles, localized in small volumes.

Regretfully, none of the enthusiasts of the proof, that the electron is “pointlike'', noticed that the total interaction energy The real true elementary particles of two “pointlike” е-, U(r) = e2/r - е-2/r3, which is positive at distances r>(е/е) =1.935·10-11cm, becomes negative in the range of distances r <1.935·10-11cm even in The real true elementary particles the case of oppositely directed coplanar (the term is explained in the first paragraph of Chapter 2) magnetic moments, since the force of their attraction by е- in this region is superior The real true elementary particles to the repulsion of charges. At distances between them, equal, for instance, to r = 10 -13 cm the total (negative!) energy Ue-e-(10-13 см ) = -53.8 GeV! But if anyone had revealed this, he would certainly The real true elementary particles have termed the ``pointlike'' e- a superhadron and suggested that theorists study the bielectron atom, the volume of which Ve-e-~4π(1.935·10-11)3/3 cm3 is filled with the superstrong magnetic coupling between two leptons of The real true elementary particles the same charge!

And long known facts, such as the rule, satisfied in all nuclei without exception, that the directions of p+ and n of the chargeless neutron are always opposite in pairs The real true elementary particles of the even part of their nucleons, could have stimulated researchers to consider the interactions of coplanar magnetic moments of hadrons and of their quarks as the basis of strong coupling The real true elementary particles. But, regretfully, this did not happen.

Back in 1967 G.P.Thomson мейд an interesting communication [4]: ``I remember very well how A.Compton presented his work on the ``ringlike'' electron to the The real true elementary particles seminar of the Cavendish Laboratory. He showed that such a theory could resolve certain difficulties, however, this idea did not receive support, and in 1926 it was replaced by the idea of the rotating electron The real true elementary particles, put forward by G.Uhlenbeck and S.Gaudsmith. But it also was not quite satisfactory.In the same work, devoted to an analysis of the results of intense 70-years-long studies of the The real true elementary particles properties of the electron discovered in 1897, Thomson noted: ''..it is most surprising to what extent a conventional theory renders even the best brains blind to new ideas'' ''

Genial P.Dirac created the The real true elementary particles relativistic theory of the electron, which, as noted above, from the very beginning involved the non-local ringlike structure of the electron, that was still not understood by the end of the The real true elementary particles XX century. Doubtless, Dirac understood the absolute necessity of taking into account, in quantum mechanics, the interaction between both the charges -е of the electrons and their magnetic moments е The real true elementary particles- and the moments of atomic nuclei and other microparticles. But, at that time it was impossible to construct a unique operator of the magnetic interaction of е- with other particles owing to the presupposed The real true elementary particles diversity of relative orientations of the magnetic moments of partners. Most likely, precisely this fact directed his efforts toward elaborating the hypothesis of the pointlike magnetic monopole aimed at constructing the The real true elementary particles desired operator of magnetic interaction on the basis of the sum of two scalar monopole potentials.

By the way, while studying the properties of the monopole back in 1931 Dirac demonstrated [5, p The real true elementary particles.68] that not only the charge of the electron and positron, ± e, must be quantized, but also the total magnetic flux of the monopole with its quantum 0 = hc/(2e) = πħc/e (which was The real true elementary particles measured 19 years later by London [6] for macroscopic superconducting rings). But

Dirac's hypothesis concerning the magnetic monopole did not work. And great efforts are still put into studies of the nature of the electron The real true elementary particles based on quantum electrodynamics (QED) involving its principal postulate that the electron is pointlike. But even in the XX century researchers developing QED started to notice the following: ``Although modern The real true elementary particles QED is quite a satisfactory

theory for a certain range of physical phenomena, it exhibits the serious defect that for removing arising divergences additional ideas have to be invoked, which are not present in The real true elementary particles the principal formulations of the theory and are not reflected in its original equations'' [7]. In the book [8, p.113], that completed his creative activity, R.Feynman, a coryphaeus of the creation

of QED The real true elementary particles, thus estimated one of its main methods: ``The trick by which we find n and j (n and j represent the mass and charge, respectively, of eˉ) is termed The real true elementary particles ``renormalization''. But, however smart the word is, I would call it stupid! The necessity of applying such a trick did not permit us to prove the mathematical selfconsistency of QED''. However, practically all scientists working The real true elementary particles in the field of QED still consider the above estimation of its defect to represent unfounded emotions of the authors of such estimations.

And till recently quanta of the The real true elementary particles charge -e and the mechanical moment h/2 always served as initial parameters for the theory. The record for elementary particles magnetic momente- 9.2956∙10- 21 erg/Gs, which is no less stable, than the charge The real true elementary particles е- = -4.803242∙10-10 CGSE, and inconceivable without the existence in the particle of a closed contour involving a just as stable electric current, circulating in the contour and creating a quantized magnetic flux e = 0 = 2.06785·10-7 Gs∙cm The real true elementary particles2, is ignored in spite of the aforementioned attempt of Compton to draw attention of researcher colleagues to the electron-ring.

Moreover, the QED postulate of the 4-vector electromagnetic electron current serving The real true elementary particles as the source of the electromagnetic field, which in the static limit has a sole (scalar) component -- the charge quantum -е, – also contradicts reality. This absurd postulate permitted, naturally after

resolving difficulties The real true elementary particles with the aid of questionable QED tricks [8], to calculate precisely the most important reliably measured beforehand parameters of the electron and of its interaction with other particles, like in another case of The real true elementary particles the other postulate of .е- being ``pointlike'' (just as absurd, since the mass of such a е- is infinitely large), which, as mentioned in the Preface, owing to the interpretation of the results The real true elementary particles of all measurements [10] of its form-factors being erroneous, was considered experimentally proven until the middle of the 80-ies.

Probably, Jenni, Levi and Reivenholl [11] were the first to note the necessity The real true elementary particles of taking into account the relativistic reduction of the measured dimensions of the electron. They claimed (1957) that in the form-factor of the particle being studied,.F(q2) = f(r)eiqrdr The real true elementary particles (q = p - p0 is the vector momentum transfer, f(r) is the static (in the rest frame) distribution of charge or kinematic magnetic moment), the argument of function f(r) undergoes relativistic reduction The real true elementary particles, that depends on the experimental conditions. Measurements of f(r) were actually performed in the laboratory reference system (l.s.), in which the electron being studied always has a velocity close to The real true elementary particles the speed of light, especially in experiments at. е-е--colliders.In these most frequently performed experiments with total symmetry of the kinematical parameters of elastically interacting partners reduction of the The real true elementary particles projection of r onto q is easily taken into account. Owing to the equality of the absolute values of the momenta of both partners, p0 (before their elastic collision) and p (after the The real true elementary particles collision), in the l.s. and to the equality of the rest masses of both colliding electrons, r in f(r) is reduced for both partners by the same factor The real true elementary particles E0/moc2 (E0 represents the energies of both е- before the collision). Taking into account the effect of reduction of dimensions correctly has revealed [9], that the result of measurement achieved at all The real true elementary particles energies of the partner particles was always the same ― the measured root-mean-square radius of the charge distribution in the е- rest frame amounted to 10-11 cm. i.e. the actual size of The real true elementary particles e- in all the experiments was c. Regretfully, after the publication of ref.[9] experiments were suspended in spite of the great importance of measurements of е- form-factors in e-e- -interactions for various The real true elementary particles combinations of the particle polarizations in colliding beams.

The above reconciles with reality the remarkable fact, revealed back in the 70-ies [7, V.B.Berestetskii] by the creators of QED, that The real true elementary particles classical electrodynamics can no longer be applied not in the case of the photon field wavelength, equal to the traditional (calculated without the contribution of H2ср/(8π) to mc2) classical re 2.82·10-13 cm, but The real true elementary particles for a wavelength actually close to c = ħ/(mc) = 3.8616·10-11 cm, which is 137 times greater than re.

The non-local nature of е- [12] involving the large radius of its toroidal structure, R с The real true elementary particles, proven both experimentally and on the basis of the Dirac relativistic theory of the electron, not only discards the problem of divergences. It also gives rise to hope that within the framework The real true elementary particles of true (non-local) quantum mechanics the construction will be implemented of a precise and at the same time more simple, than modern QED, adequate theory of those subtle effects, the parameters of The real true elementary particles which after measurement of their values can still only be calculated within the framework of QED (by applying devices, that are questionable even to its creators).

In the book, results are The real true elementary particles presented of quantum-mechanical calculations of real parameters of the real non-local toroidal electron, muon and τ-adron and of interactions e- with micro- and macroobjects, carried out by the author and his colleagues The real true elementary particles with account of corrections introduced in certain fragments of standard quantum mechanics.

CHAPTER 1

^ STRUCTURE OF THE ELECTRON

1.1 RELATIVISTIC THEORY OF CHARGE CIRCULATION IN THE ELECTRON [12]

The relativistic theory of the electron developed The real true elementary particles by Dirac [13] represents a surprising set of the main electron,s properties. Not all of them are adequately deciphered and applied, yet.

Thus, the analysis, presented by Dirac, of the The real true elementary particles integrals 1(t) and x1(t) , obtained in ref.[13], of Heisenberg's equations of motion and involving the relativistic Hamiltonian

H= c(,p) + 3mc2 (1)

for a free – with a zero external electromagnetic field and eigenvalue The real true elementary particles (e.v.) H = mc2 – electron,

1(t) = (iħ/(2H)) 10 e -2iHt/h + cp1/H (2)

and x1(t) = -(cħ2/4H2)10 e-2iHt/h + cp1H-1t + a1 (3)

revealed that c1(t) – the velocity projection The real true elementary particles onto axis x1 – consists not only of the usual constant velocity of the entire particle, c2p1/H = p1/m, but also of (icħ10 /(2H))e-2iHt/h, its part The real true elementary particles, termed by him «oscillating». The absolute value of the latter was found to be always equal to the speed of light c.

The physical meaning of c1(t) is readily understood, if one recalls The real true elementary particles that Dirac introduced into the theory, together with the 4-vector coordinate operator х, new degrees of freedom describing internal motion inside the electron. This was, naturally, done with the purpose of reflecting The real true elementary particles the existence of electron spin and magnetic moment. Here, the velocities for both types of degrees of freedom are described by one and the same operator cThus, the electron The real true elementary particles «trajectory» x1(t) (3) contains an «oscillating» part (cħ2/4H2) 10 e-2iHt/h together with the usual terms.

The problem of singling out from the general picture of the particle's motion and The real true elementary particles of investigating only the motion of its internal – hitherto considered «oscillating» – object is of significant interest.

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