The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline

The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline


The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline


The Psalms in the Old Testament

Literary Development

Literary Structure

The Psalms in Israel’s Worship

Daily Life

Liturgical Life

Psalms in NT Times

Synagogue

Early Church History

Later Church History

Psalms and Worship

General Structure of the The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline Psalms

Psalm Types and Triune Worship Language

Psalm Types and Structure

King David and the Lament Tradition

The Lament in the OT

Worship: A Davidic Paradigm

David as a Worship Leader

Prayer in the OT


The Psalms in the Old Testament


Literary The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline Development

The composition of the Old Testament book of Psalms spans as many as ten centuries. The collection of Hebrew poetry contains the ancient Song of Moses (Ps. 90; middle or late The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline second millennium B.C.) and psalms that clearly originate during the post-exilic period of Israelite history, after 539 B.C. (Ps. 146). The book of Psalms, then, is a collection or anthology The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline of individual poetic compositions written by several different authors. Over the years these poetic compositions were preserved, grouped into smaller collections, and eventually arranged to create the larger literary work we now The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline know as the book of Psalms.

At least seven authors are identified by name in the Psalter. They include Moses, David, Solomon, Heman, Ethan, Asaph, and the sons of Korah. It appears that The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline Asaph, Heman, and Korah represent musical guilds associated with, the temple (2 Chron. 25: 1-5). These titles may signify the source of a given psalm only, as in the label of the guild producing The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline the psalm, and not necessarily authorship. Almost one-third of the Psalms are anonymous compositions. The breakdown of psalmic authorship may be catalogued as follows:


MOSES-l (Ps. 90)

DAVID-73 (Pss. 3-9; 11-32; 34-41; 51-63; 6870; 86; 101; 103; 108-110; 122; 124; 131; 133; 138; 145)

SOLOMON-2 (Pss. 72; 127)

ASAPH-12 (Pss. 50; 73-83)

^ SONS The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline OFKORAH-11 (Pss. 42; 44-49; 84-85; 87-88)

HEMAN-l (Ps. 88)

ETHAN-l (Ps. 89)

UNKNOWN-49 (Pss. 1-2; 10; 33; 43; 66-67; 71; 91-100; 102; 104-107; 111-121; 123; 125-126; 128130; 132; 134-137; 146-150)


It is important to distinguish between the individual authors of the Psalms and the editors who compiled and arranged the poetic The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline compositions at a later date. Probably members of the Asaph, Korah, and Heman musical guilds served as both authors and editors of parts of the Psalms (1 Chron. 16:4-7; 25:6-8). Some have suggested the The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline Psalter was edited in its final form by the musicians of the second temple period during Nehemiah's governorship in Jerusalem (Neh. 7:73; 12:44-46). The dedication of the rebuilt walls of Jerusalem may have been The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline the event that prompted the final edition of the Hebrew Psalms (Neh. 12:27-43).

Several smaller psalmic collections have been identified in the larger corpus of the Psalms, including First Davidic Group (3-41), First Korah Group The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline (42-49), Second Davidic Group (51-65), Asaph Group (73-83), Second Korah Group (84-88), First Congregational Praise Group (95-100), Hallelujah Group (111-117), Songs of Ascent to Jerusalem (120-134), Third Davidic Group (138145), and the Second Congregational Praise Group (146-150).

These The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline smaller collections were eventually spliced into the present five-book structure recognizable in the Psalms. Bernhard Anderson outlines the structure of the Hebrew songbook like this:1


BOOK 1: ^ Psalms 1-41

Concluding doxology, Ps. 41:13

BOOK 2: Psalms 42-72

Concluding The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline doxology, Ps. 72:18-19

BOOK 3: Psalms 73-89

Concluding doxology, Ps. 89:52

BOOK 4: Psalms 90-106

Concluding doxology, Ps. 106:48

BOOK 5: Psalms 107-150

Concluding Doxology for entire Psalter, Ps. 150


Literary Structure

Recently, John Walton has offered the most convincing argument for The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline understanding the particular literary arrangement of the poetic collections in the Psalter,' He suggests the theological agenda motivating the editor(s) who combined the psalmic collections into a unified literary work was the The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline Davidic covenant, the covenant of kingship in ancient Israel.

By analogy to Old Testament historical literature the "psalms use the arrangement of liturgical composition to reflect on the nature of The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline God and the response of the individual." According to Walton, the product of this arrangement resembles a cantata about the nation of Israel represented by King David.


^ A Cantata about the Davidic The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline Covenant

Introduction Ps 1 Ultimate vindication of the righteous

Pss 1-2 Ps 2 God’s choice and defense of Israelite king

Book Seam Theme Content

Book 1 41 David’s conflict with Saul Many individual laments;

most refer to enemies


Book 2 72 David’s The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline kingship Key Pss:: 45, 48, 51, 54-65;

Mostly laments and enemy Pss


Book 3 89 Eighth-century Assyrian Asaph and Sons of Korah

Crisis collections; key Ps: 78


Book 4 106 Reflection on destruction Praise collection: 95-100;

of temple and exile key Pss: 90, 103-105


Book The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline 5 145 Praise, reflection on return Halleluyah collection: 111-117;

from exile—beginning of Songs of Ascent: 120-134;

new era Davidic reprise: 138-145; key

Pss: 107, 110, 119


Conclusion 146-150 Climatic praise to God!

From: Andrew E. Hill and John H. Walton, ^ A Survey The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline of the Old Testament. 3rd ed.

Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2009, p. 427.


The twofold theme of the cantata is introduced in Psalms 1 and 2: ultimately God will vindicate the righteous, and he alone will choose The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline and defend the Israelite king. The "seam" psalms connect the five books of the Psalter historically and theologically. The seam psalm of Books 1-2, Psalm 41, shows the transition of kingship from Saul to David The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline, and the seam psalm of Books 2-3, Psalm 72, bridges the monarchies of David and Solomon. "Psalm 89, the seam between Books III-IV, shows a covenant in disarray and a people under siege The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline; and the last seam, Psalm 106, is a litany of the failure of Israel and a plea to regather the people from exile."

This understanding of the Psalms as a liturgical composition The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline for the second temple or post-exilic period also fits the historical and theological milieu of the era. On a national level the psalmic recitation of the Davidic covenant affirmed God's intention The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline to remember his covenant and vindicate Israel by returning to Jerusalem (Zech. 8:3). This gave the fledgling Persian satellite hope that one day Israel would shake off the yoke of foreign oppression and again The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline enjoy freedom and security under a Davidic monarch (Hag. 2:20-23; cf., Ezek. 34:23-24; 37 :24-28). Practically speaking, the wisdom theme of the vindication of the righteous finds its fulfillment in the renewed emphasis on the "law The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline of the Lord" in the post-exilic reforms of Ezra and Nehemiah (Neh. 8-10; cf., Ps. 119).


^ The Psalms in Israel's Worship


The Psalms represent, in part, the creative literary energies of The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline the ancient Hebrews. The word psalm derives from the Greek psalmos which means "psalm, hymn of praise:' The use of the term psalm in the English versions translates two Hebrew words The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline, mizmor (melody, psalm) and maskil (contemplative poem, cultic song). The musical nature of the Hebrew psalms is confirmed by other words describing the compositions, especially derivatives from the roots ziimar (sing, praise The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline, play an instrument) and shtr (sing). In addition, these psalms are poetic pieces characterized by a particular type of rhythmic feature called parallelism. As in the case with psalmic genres, knowledge of Hebrew parallelism The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline in poetry is important to the understanding of the Psalms.

Interpretive approaches to the Psalms have primarily focused on the life setting of the poetic compositions, with attention given to the The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline literary character and type of the individual psalms. Heavy emphasis has been placed on the function of the Psalms in the formal religious life of the ancient Hebrews. While these approaches offer some benefit The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline to the study of the Psalms, they remain hypothetical constructs and are usually applied indiscriminately across the entire psalmic collection." The approach to the function of the Psalter in Hebrew worship The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline in this study is essentially one of biblical theology, letting the text of the Old Testament speak for itself. Where appropriate I have adapted the sociological approach of Erhard Gerstenberger, who recognized the The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline importance of the family unit in ancient Hebrew worship.


Daily Life

The composing and reciting of poetry was a common response to life experiences in the ancient world. The Hebrew culture was no The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline exception. This poetry both reflected and addressed the array of emotions associated with the events and situations of daily living. Poetic compositions were no doubt perpetuated by oral tradition in families, dans The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline, and tribes, and by the bards of that day. Some of this poetry was eventually set to writing, primarily for the purpose of preservation. Of course, these written collections of poetic works The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline later served liturgical purposes as well, like our book of Psalms. Four specific uses of psalmic poetry in daily life during Old Testament times are explored here: spontaneous worship, private The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline devotion, life' event responses, and entertainment.

Peter Craigie marks the beginning of psalmody in Israel with the exodus from Egypt." The exodus event, that great act of divine redemption in the Old The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline Testament, prompted both the song of Moses (Exod. 15:1-19) and the song of Miriam (Exod. 15:21-21) as worship responses to Yahweh. Acts of divine deliverance and providential care were often celebrated and commemorated with The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline spontaneous worship responses of psalm (or song) and singing. Examples here include the song of thanksgiving raised up in gratitude for the divine provision of water at Be'er (Num. 21:16-17), the song of The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline Moses as covenant affirmation at Mt. Nebo (Deut. 31:19, 21; 31:30-32:47), the prophetess Deborah's victory song praising God for rescue from the Canaanites (Judg. 5: 1-31), and even the spontaneous "night songs" of the righteous exalting The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline God as Creator (Job 35: 10). In fact, the psalmist encourages this kind of spontaneous worship song be, cause it is always fitting to praise God (Pss. 98:4; 147:1).

Many of the psalms were originally private The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline prayers and devotional responses to God; only later did they become public songs of worship. These personal prayers, songs, hymns, and laments in, eluded cries for deliverance from enemies (Ps. 57), confession The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline of faith (Ps. 56), confession of sin (Ps. 51), affirmation of true worship (Ps. 50), songs of thanksgiving for providential help (Ps. 40), and heart' felt praise and adoration of God (Ps. 33). Examples of personal devotional The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline response to God is found outside the Psalter as well. Especially well-known are Hannah's song of thanksgiving over the birth of Samuel (1 Sam. 2:1-10) and David's deathbed poetic oracle (2 Sam. 23:1-7). This tradition The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline of raising song to God in private devotion for his grace and goodness continues in the New Testament with Mary's song of praise, the Magnificat (Luke 1:46-55) and Zechariah's hymn, the The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline Benedictus (Luke 1:67-79).

There are a few Old Testament texts that indicate the ancient Hebrews enjoyed musical poetry of some sort sheerly for pleasure. As early as the time of Moses The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline, Israel employed ballad singers who preserved historical moments in music (Num. 21:27). The Hebrew kings gathered choirs of male and female singers for entertainment in the royal court (Eccles. 2:8). Elsewhere, the prophet Amos condemned The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline minstrels specializing in Davidic-like improvisations because the idle songs contributed to Israelite debauchery and revelry (Amos 6:5-7), and Ezekiel's prophetic message received the same hearing as the love songs of The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline contemporary singers (Ezek. 33:32).


Liturgical Life

The precedent for singing psalms and hymns as part of formal Hebrew worship in Old Testament times can also be traced to the exodus. The divine deliverance from slavery in The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline Egypt was the redemptive event that prompted worship in song throughout all Israelite history. The song of Moses and the song of Miriam are the precursors of later praise The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline hymns and songs of thanksgiving celebrating Yahweh's activity in history (Exod. 15:1-21). In addition, another song of Moses was sung as an oath of witness or testimony to covenant renewal with God The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline (Deut. 31:19; 31:30-32:47). Thus, singing was connected with Hebrew liturgy from its inception.

David's role as the organizer of the musical guilds responsible for the music of the temple liturgy comes as no surprise (1 Chron The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline. 6:3132; 25:1-31). He accounted for nearly half of the songs in the Psalter and was remembered as the "sweet psalmist" of Israel (2 Sam. 23:1 RSV). David even commissioned the writing of psalms for special The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline events, such as the return of the ark of God to Jerusalem (1 Chron. 16:7; cf., 13:8). The singing of psalms was also a part of the temple dedication (Ps. 30), the Sabbath (Ps. 92), temple worship The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline (2 Chron. 29:28, 30; Ps. 100:2; Amos 8:3), and other special festivals (Isa. 30:29). The technical notes preserved in the Psalter regarding musical scores and instrumentation further demonstrate the Psalms as "the hymnbook of the temple.”

It is The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline assumed the use of the Psalms in the liturgy of the second temple largely mirrored that of the earlier era. The books of Ezra and Nehemiah do indicate singing was an The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline important feature of the worship of God in the post-exilic period. Ezra records that two hundred male and female temple singers were among the returning Hebrew exiles from Babylon (Ezra 2:65, 70). Elsewhere, the The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline Israelites celebrated the laying of the second temple foundation with the responsive singing of psalms (Ezra 3:11); Nehemiah reports that the dedication of the rebuilt walls of Jerusalem included songs of thanksgiving (Neh. 12:8,27,46). A study The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline of the Apocrypha reveals a similar pattern of usage of the Psalms during the intertestamental period of Jewish history Jdth. 15:13; 16:1, 2, 13; Ecclus. 39:15; 1 Macc. 4:54; 13:51; 3 Macc. 7:16).

The later rabbinic traditions of Judaism indicate the The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline Psalms were used in the daily temple service at the time of the morning and evening sacrifices (Exod. 29:38-46; Num. 28:1-8). The Levites were instructed to sing psalms appropriate to the occasion after the offering The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline, such as:


Day One-Psalm 24 (Creation)

Day Two-Psalm 48 (Song of Mount Zion)

Day Three-Psalm 82 (Song of Deliverance)

Day Four-Psalm 94 (Song of Divine Vengeance)

Day Five-Psalm 81 (Song The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline of God's Goodness to Wayward Israel)

Day Six-Psalm 93 (Completion of Creation)

Day Seven-Psalm 92 (Sabbath Song)


Additionally, select psalms were incorporated into the festival liturgies. For example, the Hallelujah psalms The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline (113-118) were used in conjunction with the New Moon, Passover, Pentecost, Tabernacles, and Dedication feasts. The Feast of Purim included Psalm 7, the New Year's celebration Psalm 47. Select penitential psalms for the Day of The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline Atonement and the Songs of Ascents were associated with the three great pilgrimage festivals (Pss. 120-134; cf., Exod. 23:14-17).

Although outside the scope of this study, it is worth noting that psalmody in Israel The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline also developed within the prophetic tradition. Especially prominent are hymns and hymn fragments and laments (Isa. 5:1-7; Lam. 1-5, Jon. 2:2-9). Some of this prophetic literature may have been borrowed from the temple liturgies; other The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline materials were no doubt generated by individual creativity and prophetic inspiration. In either case these prophetic psalms were used to rebuke, warn, instruct, and call Israel to repentance (Isa. 42:10-20; Amos 5:1-2).


^ The Psalms in The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline New Testament Times


The Synagogue

The Jewish synagogue is a place for teaching the Torah of Moses and transmitting the customs and traditions of Judaism. The origins of the institution are obscure. It The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline is likely the synagogue evolved from some kind of informal gathering or association of Hebrews during the Babylonian exile. Development continued and perhaps was even spurred by the reforms of Ezra and Nehemiah The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline rooted in the Torah during the mid-fifth century B.C. The oldest testimony of a Diaspora synagogue is an inscription dated to the reign of Ptolemy III Euergetes (247-221 B The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline.C.), found at Schedia in Egypt.

During New Testament times the synagogue stood alongside the temple as an equal religious institution. After the destruction of the second temple by the Romans in The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline A.D. 70, the synagogue was considered a full substitute for the temple. The synagogue was a lay institution; officiating priests were not mandatory. (See Chapter 12.) It has been assumed that synagogue The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline worship largely reflected the temple liturgy.21 This means the Psalms would have been incorporated into the daily and festival synagogue liturgies." John Lamb has identified six specific ways the Psalter was used in the synagogue The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline service:


1. The reading and singing of complete psalms (using the Psalter as a hymnbook).

2. The use of proper psalms-all or parts of select psalms ascribed to specific holy days and The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline occasions.

3. The recitation of versicles-select psalms or psalmic portions recited as a response to the Torah and Prophetic readings.

4. Brief psalmic responses to prayers and readings.

5. Extensive appeal to The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline the Psalms for the phraseology of the liturgical prayers.


The psalms continue to form an important part of the worship service in the modem synagogue, especially in the prayers, congregational responses, and festal singing.


^ The The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline Early Church (First to Third Centuries)

Most biblical scholars acknowledge some continuity in psalmody between the Jewish synagogue and the Christian church." Massey Shepherd actually documents the similarities and differences in the The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline liturgical use of the Psalms in synagogue and church." He concludes that both synagogue and church had cantors sing the psalms (not choirs), both used the psalms as congregational responses, and The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline both sang or chanted the psalms without musical accompaniment, employing a similar monotone cadence in the recitations and chanting. By contrast, the church used the Psalms as responses between the Old and The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline New Testament lessons, whereas this practice is not attested in the synagogue until the eighth century A.D. The daily office of morning and evening prayers in the church included the The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline recitation of the entire Psalter in cycle; Jewish worship appealed to the Psalter on a selective basis only.

The importance of the Psalms for the New Testament church is evidenced by the extensive The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline appeal to the Psalter by the New Testament writers. The New Testament contains more than four hundred quotations and allusions to the Psalms, second only to the book of Isaiah." Only The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline three New Testament texts actually make reference to the singing of psalms in public worship: 1 Corinthians 14:26; Ephesians 5:18-19; and Colossians 3:16. In each case the joyous singing of psalms is connected with the edification The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline of the church body. There are two instances where the singing of a psalm or hymn occurs in the context of private worship: in Matthew 26:30 and Mark 14:26 and in James 5:13.

The The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline tradition of singing the Psalms as part of worship in the early church is confirmed by the writings of the ante-Nicene church fathers (before the Council of Nicea, A.D. 325). For The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline example, Clement of Alexandria, Origin, and Tertullian all spoke of the singing of psalms and hymns as an integral part of the early Christian liturgy," Especially important to the liturgy of the early The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline Christian church was the development of new psalmody. According to Ralph Martin,

"the Christian church was born in song,":" This was not unexpected, given the spiritual vitality released by the Holy Spirit The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline at Pentecost. Many fragments of these early Christian psalms and hymns celebrating the gospel of Jesus Christ are scattered throughout the New Testament (Phil. 2:6-11; Col. 1:15-20; 1 Tim. 4:16). Among the more well-known New Testament The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline songs are Mary's Magnificat (Luke 1:46-55), Zechariah's Benedictus (Luke 1:68-79), the Gloria in Excelsis (Luke 2:14), and Simeon's Nunc Dimittis (Luke 2:2932).29


^ Later Church History

I have attempted to highlight the salient points on the The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline use of the Psalms under two major headings: (1) the forms of psalmic use in Christian worship, and (2) the methods of psalmic use in Christian worship."


Forms of psalmic use The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline. Over the centuries complex worship forms incorporating the Psalms into Christian liturgy developed. These forms varied from church to church, region to region, and era to era. However, certain standardized liturgical uses of The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline the Psalms did emerge in church history. The more prominent forms are outlined here:


• Proper psalms-psalms selected for special occasions because the psalmic content was appropriate to the event or festival The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline; examples include the use of Psalm 63 as the morning prayer psalm and Psalm 141 as the evening prayer psalm, Psalm 34 as preparation for the Lord's Table, Psalm 22 for Good Friday, and Psalm 118 for The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline Easter Sunday."

• The gradual-a fixed responsorial psalm read, chanted, or sung by the congregation after the Old Testament lesson in the liturgy of the Western church."

• The introit, offertory, and The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline communion-antiphonal use of fixed psalms-halves of the congregation, or two choirs, or a choir and the congregation alternately reciting psalmic verses-was used in conjunction with the introit (the The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline priestly processional from the vestry to the altar). The offertory included the consecration of the elements of the Eucharist with select psalms, and the Eucharist (communion or the Lord's Table) was celebrated with The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline the singing of select psalms."

• Daily office of prayer-a six- or sevenfold daily prayer rhythm adapted from Judaism and established in the early church; this was reduced to two The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline offices, morning and evening, as part of the Counter-Reformation. The daily office includes fixed cycles of morning and evening psalms and dialogic versicles with responses- short segments of psalms employed as invocations, biddings, or The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline petitions by the worship leader with brief psalmic responses by the suppliant."

• Church year-many church lectionaries and prayer books assign select psalms to the principal festival cycles, seasons, and holy The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline days of the Christian liturgical calendar. In addition, there is a fixed schedule for reading the psalms during the church year."

• Special occasions-sometimes called the Occasional Offices, special services for baptism The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline, confirmation, marriage, ordination, burial, etc.-that may incorporate versicles or select psalms into the liturgy.


The writings of Augustine show that the Psalms were sung at any time during the worship The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline service, apart from those times when other aspects of worship were in process (Epistle 55 the, xviii). Eventually the use of the Psalms in the Sunday liturgy was limited primarily to the entrance The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline processional, the call to worship, Scripture lesson responses, and the celebration of the Lord's Table or Eucharist. The Reformation witnessed the revision of the daily office of prayer in the Roman Catholic Church The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline and the Anglican Church. Protestant traditions repudiated the offertory, and in some cases the introit and gradual. For the most part the Reformers abandon the church year, so the use of fixed The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline psalms for special days and seasons was discarded. Yet the Psalms were an important part of the Protestant worship tradition as attested by the publication of the Geneva Psalter (1562) and its The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline inclusion in part in the Scottish Book of Common Order (1564)


Methods of psalmic use. The history of Christian liturgy shows that the psalms were read, recited, chanted, and sung as The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline part of the church's worship response to God from the beginning. Also, it should be remembered that since the psalms are basically prayers, the praying of the Psalms has always been The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline a part of Jewish and Christian private devotion and public worship." An array of participants may be responsible for using the Psalter in formal Christian worship, including an individual reader or soloist The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline (cantor or singer), a choir or choirs, and segments or all of the congregation. Gender issues may surface here in some church circles. Regarding the singing of psalms in worship, I concur The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline with John Chrysostom, who wrote that women and men, young and old, could be united in Spirit like the melody in the psalms."

Finally, John Lamb has identified five specific methods for rendering The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline the Psalms in Christian worship." These five are reading, reciting, chanting, or singing the Psalms

• in unison-by the congregation as a whole.

• in solo-by one individual with all others listening.

• alternately (by The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline verse or half-verse)-antiphonally with two choirs or halves of the congregation.

• alternately (by verse or half-verse)-responsoriallv with the congregation responding to the reader or soloist.

• alternately-with the congregation The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline responding to the individual reader or singer with a fixed liturgical response like "Amen!" "Alleluia!" or "His mercy endures forever!" (a variation

of the responsorial).


Other combinations are possible, and were no doubt The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline used by the church, given the importance of the Psalms in Christian liturgy.


^ The General Structure of the Psalms


Lament Psalms or Petitionary Praise → “God will act” (Books 1 and 2)



Thanksgiving Psalms or The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline Declarative Praise → “God has acted” (Books 3 and 4)



Hymn Psalms or Descriptive Praise → “God is God”

(Book 5)
^ Psalms and Triune Worship Language

We praise the Father:


Emphasis: Transcendence, Majesty, Mystery

Psalm Type: Hymn


We give The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline thanks to the Son:


Emphasis: Immanence, Story-Telling

Psalm Types: Song of Thanksgiving, Story-Telling


We invoke the presence of the Holy Spirit:

^ Emphasis: Illumination, Symbol(ism)
Psalm Types: Torah, Wisdom, Messianic


Psalm Types and The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline Their Structure


The format of the story-telling psalm (reciting the work[s] of God in the past for the purpose of encouraging faithfulness in the present and instilling hope The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline for the future):


• statement of praise to God

• remembrance of God’s favor in the past

• confession of sin(s)

• recollection of God’s mighty deeds and saving works

• petition

• benediction (praise and blessing)


Examples: Pss 78, 105, 106, 135, 136


The format The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline of the individual and community lament (retelling personal or corporate troubles and how a faithful God delivered his people):


Individual Lament Community Lament

• address to God • call to remember God’s past The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline faithfulness

• complaint • summons to worship

• confession of trust • people’s lament/complaint proper

• petition • plea for deliverance

• words of assurance

• vow of praise


Examples: community lament (Pss 12, 44, 58, 60, 74, 79, 80, 83, 85, 89, 90, 94,

123, 126, 129, 137); individual lament (Pss 3, 5, 7, 9-10, 13, 14 = 53, 22, 25, 26, 27, 28, 31, 35, 36, 39, 40, 41, 42-43, 52, 56, 57, 59, 61, 63, 64, 69, 70, 71, 77, 86, 88, 109, 120, 139, 140, 141, 142)


The format of the hymn (exuberant praise The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline of God, extolling his glory and greatness as revealed in nature and history):


• call to worship, usually introduced with an imperative verb

• main section, containing motive for praise

• recapitulation, renewed summons to praise God The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline, echoing the opening of the psalm


Examples: 8, 19, 33, 66, 95, 100, 103, 104, 111, 113, 114, 117, 145, 146, 147,

148, 149, 150


The format of the song of thanksgiving (expression of praise to God for deliverance from a situation of distress or hardship):


• introduction indicating worshiper’s intent to give thanks The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline to God, including an

opening invocation мейд to YHWH in the second person)

• main section, narration of the psalmist’s experience (portrayal of distress,

suppliant’s cry for help, report The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline of divine deliverance)

• conclusion, worshiper offers praise out of experience for God’s restoring and

renewing grace or a confession that God is gracious


Examples: community song of thanksgiving (Pss 65, 67, 75, 107, 124, 136);

individual song of thanksgiving (Pss The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline 18, 21, 30, 32, 43, 40, 66, 92, 103, 108, 116, 118, 138)

^ King David and the Lament Tradition


The Scriptures attest David was a poet and a musician (1 Sam. 16:18; 2 Sam. 23:1). The book of Samuel credits David as the composer of a funeral song for The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline Saul and Jonathan (2 Sam. 1:17-27), a lament for Abner (2 Sam. 3:33-34), a song of praise commemorating his deliverance from King Saul (2 Sam. 22 = Ps. 18), and a deathbed poem (2 Sam. 23:1-7). The expression “of David” is attached The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline to the headings of seventy-three psalms, suggesting some association between the king and the poetry of the Psalter. Traditionally the construction is understood as a “genitive of authorship,” signifying David as The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline the composer of these Psalms.


The Book of Psalms is an anthology comprised of five separate collections of (hymnic) poems:


Book 1: 1-41 David’s Conflict with Saul

Book II: 42-72 David’s Kingship

Book III: 73-89 Eighth-Century Assyrian The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline Crisis

Book IV: 90-106 Introspection about Destruction of Temple and Exile

Book V: 107-150 Praise/Reflection on Return from Exile

A total of sixty-two psalms are classified as either “community laments” (Pss. 12, 44, 58, 60, 74, 79, 80, 83, 85, 89, 90, 94, 123, 126, 129, 137), or “individual laments The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline” (Pss. 3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 10, 13, 14, 17, 22, 25, 26, 27, 28, 31, 34, 35, 36, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 59, 61, 63, 64, 69, 70, 71, 77, 86, 88, 89, 109, 120, 139, 140, 141, 142). David is credited with composing forty-one of the laments in the Psalms (3, 4, 5, 7, 9, 12, 13, 14, 17, 22, 25, 26, 27, 28, 31, 34, 35, 36, 39, 40, 41, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 63, 64, 69, 70, 86, 109, 139, 140, 141, 142).

^ The Lament in the Old Testament

The “lament” must not be confused with the “lamentation.” The lamentation The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline is an expression of grief over a calamity that is not reversible (i.e., a funeral dirge).


The lament is an appeal to God’s compassion to intervene and change a desperate The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline situation.

Laments are praise offered in a “minor key” in the confidence that God is faithful and in anticipation of a new lease on life.


The lament may be an individual or The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline community prayer. Each has a distinctive structure. The structure of the individual lament may be outlined as follows (although the order of the elements may vary in a given psalm):


Address to God

Complaint

Confession The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline of Trust

Petition

Words of Assurance

Vow of Praise

The community lament is a national (or corporate) expression of distress and despair at God’s apparent abandonment of his people and his covenant promises The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline. The community lament is sometimes characterized by this four-part outline:


Call to Remember God’s Faithfulness

Summons to Worship

People’s Lament Proper

Plea for Divine Deliverance


Case Studies: Individual Laments


Psalm 13

Psalm 56


Case Studies: Community The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline Laments


Psalm 12

Psalm 44


“The Psalms show Israel, our ancestral people of God, at worship. They show the shape of this worshiping community in all its astonishing vitality and variety. If we know less The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline than we once thought we did about who wrote them and why they were written, we know more about the way and circumstances in which they were prayed, and praying them, not investigating them, is The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline the Christian’s main business.” (E. Peterson, Answering God: The Psalms as Tools for Prayer. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1989, p. 48.)


Bibliography.

Bernhard W. Anderson, Out of the Depths: The Psalms Speak The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline for Us Today. 3rd ed. Louisville: W/JKP, 2001.

Walter Brueggemann, “The Costly Loss of Lament,” pp. 98-111 in The Psalms and the Life of Faith.

Patrick D. Miller, ed. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1995.

C The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline. Hassell Bullock, Encountering the Book of Psalms. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2001.

Longman, T.. How to Read the Psalms. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1988.


Worship: A Davidic Paradigm


King David’s epitaph marks him as The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline a worshiper of God par excellence—a person after God’s own heart (Acts 13:22). What was worship for King David and how does he model worship for the Christian and for the Christian church The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline today? Let’s take inventory of those items contributing to David’s understanding of the proper worship of God as preserved in lyrics of his songs and hymns in the Psalter The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline:


 based on a personal knowledge of God, his essential character and basic attributes (e.g., Pss. 23, 25)

 involved a whole person response to God: mind, emotions, will, bodily movement (e.g The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline., Ps. 35:10)

 reflected in a variety of moods, from joy to lament (e.g., Ps. 13:1-2, 5-6)

 sometimes a casual and spontaneous response and other times formal and planned response (e.g., Pss. 3; 63:2)

 sometimes a The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline private response and sometimes a corporate response (e.g., Pss. 26:12; 63:6)

 ordered by a festival calendar (e.g., Pss. 42:4; 55:17)

 represented and explained at times in symbols, images, and word pictures (e.g., Ps The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline. 18:2)

 rooted in the revealed word of God (e.g., Pss. 18:30; 33:4; 56:4)

 music an integral part of the worship response (e.g., Ps. 33:2-3)

 preparation, including confession and repentance, as a prerequisite for worship (e.g The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline., Pss. 15, 24, 51)

 primarily an internal issue, a matter of right heart, attitude, motive (e.g., Ps. 51:6, 7, 10, 16-17)

 expressed in a variety of rituals, bodily movements, and external actions (e.g., Pss. 20:3; 30:11; 50:14)


The point The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline here in not to define worship, although David’s worship reinforces the basic understanding of worship as a Spirit-led response to what we believe God has said and done (as recorded in The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline the Bible). Nor is the intent to compile a comprehensive list of characteristics that present a complete profile of David as a worshiper of God. Rather, we seek to distill principles from the worship The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline responses of David that will inform our own worship response to God and his mighty deeds of deliverance. As Marva Dawn reminds us, ultimately worship is all about God as he The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline is both the subject (i.e., our worship is for him and not ourselves) and the object (i.e., our worship is directed toward him) of right worship. (82) King David knew The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline this well.


Robert Webber has argued that any historical or comparative study of the practice of Christian worship must take three essential factors into account: content, structure, and style. (83) Primary among the three is The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline the content of Christian worship. The headwaters of Christian worship are found in the worship of the Israelites as recorded in the Old Testament. Hebrew worship and devotion were focused solely The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline upon the God of creation (Gen. 1:1-2), the God of covenant relationship (Gen. 12:1-3), the God of redemptive acts in history (Exod. 12:1-3), and the God of sovereign rule over the nations (Dan. 2:20-21). The The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline Israelite exodus from Egypt is the redemptive event of the Old Testament because it was in this act that Yahweh “redeemed” the Hebrew people (cf. Exod. 15:13; Deut. 7:8: 13:5). Throughout the rest of Old Testament history The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline Yahweh is known as the One who “brought” Israel out of Egypt (e.g., Exod. 12:51; 13:3; Ps. 80:8; Jer. 2:6). The Passover ritual connected with the exodus event foreshadowed the Christ event The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline of the New Testament, as Paul affirmed that Jesus Christ was our Passover lamb (1 Cor. 5:7). More specifically, Christian worship remembers and celebrates the birth, life, death, resurrection, and ascension of Jesus Christ The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline as recorded in the New Testament. The content of Christian worship is non-negotiable and Christian worship must be judged by its content—not by its structure or style.

For more than twenty centuries The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline the Christian church has raised the question of how to structure the content of worship? How is worship best ordered so that the story of God’s saving work in The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline history is clearly heard and experienced? This means we must deal with “liturgy” in some fashion. The word liturgy is an unsettling one for many evangelical Protestants, but this need not be the The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline case. The word “liturgy” simply means “the work or service of the people in public worship.” All corporate Christian worship is liturgical in one sense in that it organizes the responses of The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline the people to the Christ event in an order of service. The Old Testament, the New Testament, and church history offer numerous models of worship structure, and man remain a vital part of the The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline diverse Christian worship tradition. (84)


The “style” of Christian worship pertains to the atmosphere and environment in which the structure of worship is enacted. Worship style includes such things as the architecture of The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline the worship space, aesthetic expression in art and music, the dress of worship leaders and the congregation, an active versus a passive approach to congregational involvement (including the engagement of all The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline the senses in worship), and the nature of the pulpit ministry. The style of Christian worship may be formal or casual, traditional or contemporary. Worship style is the one aspect of Christian worship The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline most easily influenced by popular culture. It would probably be safe to say that most of the “worship wars” in the Christian church today take place on this front—worship style. One The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline helpful response to this struggle to achieve both substance in relevance in Christian worship today is the idea of “blended worship” or the “convergence of styles” in which an array The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline of worship styles are incorporate into the worship experience. (85)


(82) Marva Dawn, ^ Reaching Out without Dumbing Down. (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1989), pp. 76-82; on “David’s Kind of Worship” see Sally Morgenthaler, Worship Evangelism. (Grand The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline Rapids: Zondervan, 1995), pp. 37-38.

(83) Robert E. Webber, Worship Old & New. Rev. ed. (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1994), p. 149.

(84) On the structure of worship see, Hill, Andrew E. Enter His Courts with Praise! Grand Rapids: Baker, 1996. Pp The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline. 50-51, 231-32; Liesch, Barry. The New Worship: Straight Talk on Music and the Church. Grand Rapids: Baker, 1996. Pp. 47-74; Martin, Ralph P. Worship in the Early Church. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1974. Pp. 130-39; Webber, Robert E The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline. (ed.). The Complete Library of Christian Worship. Volume One: The Biblical Foundations of Christian Worship. Nashville: StarSong, 1993. Pp. 123, 137-38; and Volume Two: Twenty Centuries of Christian Worship. Nashville: StarSong, 1994. Pp. 131-33; 247-48.

(85) Robert E. Webber, Blended The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline Worship: Achieving Substance and Relevance in Worship. (Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 1996).

^ David as a Worship Leader

The convergence of these two activities, leadership and worship, occurred quite naturally in the life The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline of David. David’s example as a worship leader has much to offer to those who minister in similar roles today. The Psalms especially provide insight on David’s approach to the worship of The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline God. For our purposes, Psalm 62 may be effectively mined as a case study in worship leadership with the use of a little imagination. (1)


For instance, David understood that worship has a The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline trajectory through two “audiences” before it reaches its primary “target audience”—God himself. This is implicit in David’s initial фокус upon himself (vv. 1-7), before his attention shifts to calling the people to “pour The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline out their heart” in worship to God (vv. 8-10). Finally and appropriately, God is the ultimate object of the adoration of David and the people (vv. 11-12). David knew that these steps in the The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline process of the worship response to God were vital to preventing worship from degenerating into heartless ritual or crass performance.


As a prelude to leading God’s people in worship, the The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline worship leader must first restore a right relationship with God as the exclusive spiritual resource for one’s life (note that “salvation,” “rest,” and “honor” are found in “God alone” (vv. 1-2, 5-7). This instills The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline confidence in God—not self (note the repetition of the clause “I will never be shaken,” vv. 2, 6). The worship leader is thus enabled, indeed empowered, to exhort the congregation to do The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline the same—rejecting society’s reliance upon status and wealth (vv. 9-10) for continual and unwavering “trust in Him” (v. 8). Once both leader and people have “re-centered” their lives in the absolute trust The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline of God, they are capable of rendering proper worship to God, fully cognizant of his transcendence (“you, O God, are strong,” v. 11) and his immanence (“you, O Lord, are loving,” v. 12). The The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline reminder that God is the supreme Judge of all humanity (v. 12) both seals and prompts the worshiper’s commitment to “trust in God at all times” (v. 8).


The worship leader The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline, like a shepherd, knows the basic needs of her or his “flock.” One need not be clairvoyant to determine these basic human needs since they are widely perceived as universal concerns.

Drawing The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline from other resources, Marva Dawn has compiled a list of seven fundamental needs of our being, including: identity (i.e., who am I?), master story (i.e., how does it all fit together?), loyalty The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline (i.e., to whom do I belong?), values (i.e., by what shall I live?), power (i.e., how can I protect myself?), meaning (i.e., what is the purpose of The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline my life?), and hope (i.e., why should I go on?). (2) The experienced worship leader realizes that meeting human need through the corporate worship experience cannot be “canned” in some programmatic formula The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline or “packaged” in clever technique. Happily, the content and form of biblical worship inherently address life issues. When the redeemed creature properly worships the Creator and the Redeemer, the needs The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline of our being our fully met. Meeting human need is not the goal of worship, but one of the results of true worship.


An examination of Psalm 62 indicates that David intuitively dealt The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline with similar basic human needs in his song of trust. David’s identity and confidence as a man (v. 3) and a spiritual being (note the word “soul”) was bound up in God alone (vv. 1, 5). The The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline idea that David’s “honor” or reputation (v. 7) was tied to God’s reputation casts David’s identity as a creature of dignity мейд in God’s image. That imago The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline dei built into our make-up as persons means we have divinely endowed capacities to worship God and enter into fellowship him (Gen. 3:8; Isa. 43:7). Like God himself, the worship leader “shows no partiality” and The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline views every individual as a person мейд in God’s image and a potential worshiper of God (2 Chron. 19:7; Acts 10:34).


The master story that gives coherence to personal existence and human history The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline is embedded in that word “salvation” (vv. 1, 6). For David, salvation was the record of Israel’s deliverance from Egypt and his personal deliverance from political enemies and his own moral failure—his own The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline sin (cf. Pss. 3:8; 25:6-11). For the Christian salvation is the record of Christ’s atoning work upon the cross and personal deliverance from our moral failure by faith in God’s The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline effective but mysterious redemptive plan for fallen creation. The master story is also implied in the fact that “God has spoken” (v. 11). The spoken word of God has been inscripturated and the The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline master story of God is a matter of “public record” in the Bible. Worship celebrates the architect of the “master story”—the Triune God. The worship leader, like David, loves God by The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline loving his law (or revealed Word) and “stock-piling” it in his or her heart through reading, prayer, meditation, and memorization (Pss. 18:1; 19:7-11; 40:8; cf. 119:9-16). The worship leader knows well both the Master and The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline his master-story.


David’s loyalty is obvious. There is no to question as to whom David belonged, as he took his “rest” (v. 1) in God as his mighty rock and refuge (v The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline. 7). The emphasis on the personal pronoun “my” reinforces David’s conviction that he indeed belonged to God (vv. 1-2, 5-7). David’s loyalty to God grew out of his understanding of the idea The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline of covenant in the biblical world. A covenant establishes an inviolable relationship between two parties (unlike a contractual relationship). God has pledged himself to the faithful in a covenant relationship much The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline like a bridegroom to a bride (Jer. 2:2). Both parties guard this sacred trust jealously (Deut. 5:9; Josh. 24:19; Ps. 18:21, 25). The worship leader facilitates the response of “covenant loyalty” by the worshiper as a part of the The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline worship experience. (For this reason the observance of the Lord’s Table or the Eucharist is important to Christian worship. It is both a memorial of Christ’s atoning work The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline on the cross and an act of covenant renewal on the part of the believer who rests in that relationship with God that the cross established.)


David’s values are exposed by The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline way of negative example in his admonition against trusting in social status, unlawful activity, or wealth to secure identity and meaning in this life (vv. 9-10). On the positive side, David’s values may The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline be seen in “honor” (or a reputation) that was dependent upon God’s “good name” (v. 7). I believe David understood the “greatest good” taught in the Bible, the two great commandments: to love God The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline with our whole person and to love our neighbor as ourselves (Lev. 19:18; Deut. 6:5; cf. 2 Sam. 7:7-8; Ps. 18:1). The worship leader understands how to translate this into the two great sacrifices of the The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline Bible: the sacrifice of praise (i.e., worship) and the sacrifice of doing good (i.e., service to others) (Heb. 13:15-16).


David’s need for protection against those who would use power against The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline him (vv. 3-4) was fulfilled in the power or might of his “strong God” (v. 11). David understood that worship is a form of spiritual warfare (Pss. 4:2; 14:1-3; 40:4; 95:3; 96:4). The worship leader must be aware The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline of this cosmic battle as well. Like David, we find empowerment for this “battle” in the ministry Holy Spirit (Pss. 51:11; 143:10). (3)


The destination of David’s quest for meaning and purpose in life was found The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline in a “loving Lord” who “rewards” each person according to the life they have lived (v. 12). What could make life any more meaningful than divine judgment of that life? (Cf The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline. Eccl. 12:13-14.) David’s approach to life anticipates the words of Christ, “well done…faithful servant” (Matt. 25:21) because he understood his life as a pilgrimage to “joy in God’s presence” (Ps. 16:11) and The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline everlasting life “in the house of the Lord” (Ps. 23:6).

The worship leader guides a band of “pilgrims” into the joy of God’s presence.


Finally, David’s hope was not something he The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline manufactured by force of will or cleverness of imagination. Rather, his hope came from God himself (v. 5) as a result of his relationship with the Yahweh—the name of the covenant making The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline and covenant keeping God (v. 12). David’s hope was rooted in his faithful God (Pss. 25:10; 33:4). The worship leader’s task is to help the worshiper encounter the Faithful God in worship.


Like The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline David, the worship leader ushers the faithful into the presence of God in corporate worship in order to gratefully respond to what we believe this One/Triune God has said and The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline done (as revealed in the Bible). In so doing, the worship leader discharges a high-calling, because the act of worship touches the very core of our humanity, fulfills the purpose for The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline which we were created, and prepares us for our “normal employment” in the next life—eternal worship in the heavenly realm.

_____________________

Footnotes


(1) The idea for utilizing Psalm 62 as a paradigm for worship leadership germinated from a The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline sermon by John Casey, Senior Pastor at Blanchard Road Alliance Church (Wheaton, Ill.) entitled: “How to Worship God in Trouble” (3.5.2000). The DWS 701 course work of two IWS graduates, Eric The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline Bolger and Heather Hood, also provided impetus for the exploration of David as a worship leader.

(2) Marva Dawn, A Royal “Waste” of Time. (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1999), pp. 23-36.

(3) On worship as “spiritual warfare The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline” I am attracted to W. Brueggemann’s contention that “the act of praise is indeed world-making for the community which takes the act of worship as serious and realistic…worship is The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline not only constitutive, but inevitably polemical. Praise (of Jesus) insists not only that this is the true world, but that other worlds are false…The church sings praises not only toward God but against The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline the gods” (Israel’s Praise: Doxology Against Idolatry and Ideology. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1988, pp. 26-27).


^ Prayer in the Old Testament


Prayer in the Old Testament should not be equated with the superstitious incantations and magical chants The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline of the Hebrews’ pagan neighbors (e.g., the prayer of the priests of Baal in 1 Kgs. 18:2-29). For the ancient Israelites prayer was always a personal encounter with God rooted in The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline his divine self-revelation and covenant relationship with Israel. Whether audible (Dan. 9:4) or silent (1 Sam. 1:13), prayer was understood as direct communication with a responsive deity—a God in Zion who hears prayers (Ps The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline. 65:1-2). Several distinct but related expressions of prayer may be identified in the Old Testament:


• Worship—ascribing God the glory due his name (Ps. 29:1-2).

• Praise—preoccupation with who God is and what he has The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline done (Ps. 135:1-7).

• Thanksgiving—specifically acknowledging the goodness of God (Ps. 136:1-26).

• Adoration—personal, loving worship (Ps. 73:25).

• Devotion—prayer resulting in a vow (1 Sam. 1:11).

• Communion—emphasizes relationship with God and two-way communication The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline and fellowship in prayer (Pss. 5:3; 42:8; 94:19).

• Confession—individual or corporate admission of sin and guilt before God, a necessary prerequisite for prayer and worship (Ezra 9:6-15; Neh. 9:1-3).

• Petition or supplication—presenting personal needs, cares, concerns The Psalms in Hebrew and Christian Worship: Outline, complaints to God (1 Sam. 1:17; Ps. 20:5).

• Intercession—petition or supplication for others (Exod. 32:112 Sam. 12:16).

• Imprecation—plea for divine justice, to invoke a curse (Ps. 139).
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