The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice

The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice




The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice


Nancy Campbell, March 2004


American corporations dole out an estimated 15 billion dollars per year on training and consulting for The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice up and coming mangers and leaders. Some target high performers and potential leaders within the organization. Others believe that leadership is more about what you do rather than who you are and The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice, therefore, everyone in the organization is capable of becoming a leader. We have been arguing and writing about the science and practice of management since the early 1900’s, and about leadership for at least 2000 years The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice, all in an effort to demystify both. Is management, in fact, a practice, an art, or a science? Are leaders born or мейд? What do managers actually do? The argument The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice continues.


My 25 years of experience as a manager, leader, and consultant, both nationally and internationally, have helped me to understand the nature of that work, and the value it can bring. I The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice have seen the shift in training and education from a фокус on technical skills to interpersonal skills. I have witnessed weary participants leaving a weeklong manager’s leadership workshop, feeling emotionally raw after confronting The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice personal behaviors that have deterred their progress and performance as managers and leaders. Corporations are asking their leaders to take personal change seriously – a critical success factor to organizational change The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice. Learning leads to more effective action and, therefore, improved performance - and is no longer an option. More and more of the managers I interact with are recognizing that the roles of management and The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice leadership are deep, complex, and personally challenging, in addition to time consuming and sometimes emotionally exhaustive. On occasion, some question their role and their interest in pursuing that role. Reflective questions like The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice, “Do I really want to be a manager?” and “Am I capable of being a good leader?” are not uncommon. It seems reasonable to ask such questions, given the scope of The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice work that needs to be done, and the ever-increasing inside pressures from those at the top and the bottom, and the outside pressures of global competition.


I will begin my exploration The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice of management and leadership by examining and critiquing classic and current theories of management and leadership, and how they have impacted and shifted management thinking and practice over the last century. I will The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice then identify the theories, approaches, and ideas that appear to have survived the management and leadership debate, and therefore continue to evolve. Finally, I will reflect on my own experience and what The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice I believe will be the trend for the future of management and leadership.


^ Management and Leadership Defined


In the past, we have referred to management and managers quite separately from leadership The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice and leaders. To manage was to plan, organize, direct, and control – “a way to reduce chaos in organizations and to make them run more effectively and efficiently” (Northouse, 2004, p. 8). To lead was to The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice motivate, inspire, guide and coach - “a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal” (Northouse, 2204, p. 3). It is only recently that we have begun The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice to describe the two roles in conjunction with each other. Managerial leadership describes managers as leaders and leaders as managers, a combination that compliments and balances the needs of changing organizations, and a The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice combination that suggests the need for combined models and multiple frameworks to strategically and tactically navigate the future before us. If management is a process of producing order and stability, and The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice leadership is a process that produces change and movement, as argued by Kotter, Bennis and Nanus, I would argue that there does appear to be an overlap of both roles, whether at The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice the manager level or CEO level. “When managers are involved in influencing a group to meet its goals, they are involved in leadership. When leaders are involved in planning, organizing, staffing, and controlling, they The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice are involved in management. Both processes involve influencing a group of individuals toward goal attainment” (Northouse, 2004, p. 10).


The evolution of management and leadership models and frameworks are works in progress, and The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice the process of both is becoming more complex, challenging the conventional thinking and wisdom of the past. We are in search of more integrated models to serve our thinking and actions in the The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice future, and to meet the increasing needs and ensure the future success of our current and up-and-coming competent, ethical, leaders.

^ 1900-1925: The Rational/Structural Framework

With the economic surge The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice of the early nineteenth century, and the growth of large-scale businesses, came the need to manage and lead more efficiently the administrative and productive capacity of organizations in the pursuit of capitalistic development. “Organizations The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice were rationally designed to solve permanently the conflict between collective needs and individual wants that had bedeviled social progress since the days of Ancient Greece” (Reed quoting Wolin, 1961, p. 31). Rational The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice, scientific design offered a way to coordinate, control, and create order from the chaos of an industrial society deeply altered by the demand and consumption of new goods and services. The gurus of The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice the day included F. W. Taylor, H. Fayol, H. Simon, L. Urwick and E. Brech, all of whom advocated the theory of scientific management – “the organization as a rationally constructed The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice artifice directed to the solution of collective problems of social order and administrative management” (Reed, 1996, p. 35). The division of labor served as the foundation of all organizations and their reason for being. Hence, it The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice was important to manage primarily through a scientific process devoid of any human emotion, beliefs, or values (Reed quoting Waldo, 1948, p. 35). “Epistemological principles and administrative techniques translate highly contestable, normative The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice precepts into universal, objective, immutable, and hence unchallengeable, scientific laws. The rational individual is, and must be, an organized and institutionalized individual. Human beings became raw material transformed by modern organizational technologies into The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice well-ordered, productive members of society unlikely to interfere with the long-term plans of ruling classes and elites” (Reed quoting Simon, 1957, p. 35). Given the social, political, and economic status of the The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice day, most workers were probably willing to except this treatment in order to ensure food on the table and a roof over their head. In my experience, this rationale is still The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice accepted management practice in some third world countries like India and parts of China, although changing rapidly.


Frederick W. Taylor, in his 1911 book entitled, “Principles and Methods of Scientific Management”, recognized the The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice inadequacies of the military model of authority for large-scale factory productions of the day. Taylor’s scientific management theory, often referred to as ‘Taylorism’, emphasized a managerial ideology “thought to aid employers or their The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice agents in controlling and directing the activities of workers” (Reed, 1996, p. 35). The Taylor Society, and its members, supported and believed the principle of optimizing production achieved through a strict division The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice of labor, with each worker performing the same task the same way, under strict supervision. Each task was broken into to smaller parts, and workers were trained to get the most from each motion The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice and every second – substantiated by Taylor’s time-and-motion studies (Bolman, 2003).


Fayol was more affected by the chaos, disruption, and conflict in organizations resulting from rapid growth and development The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice. His principles of organization were driven by the need to coordinate and control to manage the conflict caused by ‘informal behavior’ (Reed, 1996). “Classical organization theory is founded on the underlying belief that an organization The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice provides a principle of structural design and a practice of operational control which can be rationally determined and formalized in advance of actual performance” (Reed, 1996, p. 36). He identified five The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice basic functions of organization as planning, organizing, coordination, commanding, and controlling.


Simon’s theory of ‘bounded rationality’ and ‘administrative behavior’ sought to reduce any ‘interpretive work’ done by individuals within the organization by providing The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice cognitive processes and formalized rules and operations (Reed, 1996). With detailed policies and procedures in place, workers were encouraged not to think, and perform according to standardized processes – a simple extension of the assembly The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice line and devoid of any personal or responsible power.


German economist and sociologist Max Weber’s structural ideas emphasized the framework of power and domination in the form of patriarchy The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice, rather than rationality – but still based his ideas on an organizing principle (Bolman, 2003). “Patriarchal organizations were dominated by a father figure, an individual with almost unlimited power. He could reward, punish The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice, promote, or fire on personal whim” (Bolman, 2003, p. 46). Similar to Taylor’s theme, Weber identified major features of his theory as (1) a fixed division of labor, (2) a hierarchy of offices, (3) a set of rules governing The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice performance, (4) separation of personal from official property and rights, (5) technical qualifications (not family ties or friendship) for selecting personnel, and (6) employment as primary occupation and long-term career (Bolman, 2003). This ‘bureaucratic model The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice’ focused on structure and function and later resurfaced in the 1960’s.


What the rationality framework failed to do was deal with the increasing complexity and dynamic changes rapidly occurring The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice in the workplace. In short, this framework was not adaptable or flexible enough to respond to rapid change and ensure the long-term prosperity and sustainability of an organization. To avoid conflict seemed not rational The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice, unreasonable, if not ridiculous. What was referred to in the 1960’s as a hard version of ‘Theory X management’ (coercion, tight controls, threats and punishments if workers do not conform The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice), proved to be inadequate. “The usual result is superficial harmony with undercurrents of apathy and indifference” (Bolman, 2003, p. 118). This ‘sickness’ will result in behavioral consequences such as passivity, hostility, and even The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice sabotage.


1930-1950: The Evolution of the Human Relations Framework


Mary Follett Parker agreed, and мейд the point that “We can never wholly separate the human from the mechanical side…But you all see every day that the The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice study of human relations in business and the stuff of operating are bound up together” (Follett, 1995, p. 27). In the 1960’s a similar point мейд by Douglas McGregor supporting self-direction The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice was referred to as ‘Theory Y management’ – “the essential task of management is to arrange organizational conditions so that people can achieve their own goals best by directing their efforts toward organizational rewards The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice” (Bolman quoting McGregor, 1960, p. 119). Organicist thinking and those from the human relations school argued that the rationality framework failed to deal with the problems of social integration and maintaining social order in The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice a more unstable and uncertain world (Reed, 1996). “The mission of the organization is not only to supply goods and services, but fellowship as well” (Reed quoting Wolin, 1961, p. 37). A 2004 survey on The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice retirement by “The Economist” notes that longer living retirees will predictably stay in the workplace longer, or re-enter the workplace for that kind of need – “stimulus, companionship and the freedom The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice from worry that a bit of extra money can bring.”(The Economist, 2004). “The whole thrust of the human relations perspective is a view of social isolation and conflict as a symptom of social The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice pathology and disease. The ‘good’ society and the effective organization are defined in relation to their capacity to facilitate and sustain the socio-psychological reality of spontaneous cooperation and social stability The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice in the face of economic, political and technological changes that threaten the integration of the individual and group within the wider community” (Reed, 1996, p. 37). Rather than management as a set of concrete rules and tools The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice, management was a function and a role within a larger social unit, requiring a socially skilled management within an adaptable system, focused on encouraging emergent processes capable of ensuring The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice some form of stability and sustainability. “Changes in organizational patterns are considered as the result of cumulative, unplanned, adaptive responses to threats to the equilibrium of the system as a whole. Responses to The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice problems are thought of as taking the form of crescively developed defense mechanisms and being importantly shaped by shared values, which are deeply internalized in the members. The empirical фокус is thus directed to The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice the spontaneously emergent and normatively sanctioned structures in the organization” (Reed quoting Gouldner, 1959, p. 37). This framework was about survival and the needs of a changing society at large. It was The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice an opportunity to apply the social integration frameworks of social scientists, and the general principles of systems theory. “By the late 1940’s and early 1950’s, this conception of organizations as social systems The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice geared to the integrative and survival ‘needs’ of the larger societal orders of which they were constituent elements established itself as the dominant theoretical framework within organization analysis” (Reed, 1996, p. 37).


Those that The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice argued against the rational model include Roethlisberger and Dickson in their 1939 book entitled, “The Management and the Worker”, and the 1933 and 1945 writings of Elton Mayo (1933). They questioned the deeply held assumption of The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice the rational school of thought – “that workers had no rights beyond a paycheck; their duty was to work hard and follow orders” (Bolman, 2003, pp. 113-114). An outsider and a factual idealist who was not recognized The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice for her contributions until after her death, was Mary Follett Parker, a political and social scientist with years of practical experience in social and public affairs. Her фокус was The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice on conflict and power, and how it can be мейд to work for us, rather than against us. (Follett, 1995). Abraham Maslow further supported the human relations framework by developing a most influential The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice theory of human needs – physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs. Academics remain skeptical and argue that the concept of need is vague, but Maslow’s theory is The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice still widely accepted among managers, some who have used these values and beliefs as core elements of progressive company policy. (Bolman, 2003).


The human relations movement, later referred to by The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice Lee Bolman in 1984 as the human resource framework, argued that organizations exist to serve people, rather than people existing to serve organizations. There must be a good fit between the individual and the system – if The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice the fit is poor, both suffer and if the fit is good, both benefit (Bolman, 2003). Follett argued, “Of what then does the individuality of a man consist? Of his relation to the The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice whole, not (1) of his apartness nor (2) of his difference alone (Follett, 1995, p. 256). Where Follett focused on managers and their social system, Mayo focused on workers and their social system (Follett, 1995). Each The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice contributed to the фокус on the human relations perspective in the workplace, each with a vision of the “new” organization, driven by the need to survive.


^ 1951 – 1975: Market-driven, Political, and Open Systems The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice Frameworks


As a way of surviving, this era produced concepts and theories integrating some aspects of both the rational and organistic viewpoint. The rational framework assumes that behavior is motivated by “the The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice goal of minimizing market costs and maximizing market returns”(Reed, 1996, p. 39). The organistic viewpoint focuses on the organization “as an evolutionary and semi-rational product of spontaneous and unintended consequences” (Reed quoting The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice Hayek, 1978, p. 39). Richard Cyert, an economist, and James G. March, a political scientist, both professors at Carnegie-Mellon in 1963, rejected the traditional economic view of an organization with the single goal of maximizing profits The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice. Cyert and March placed decision-making and resource allocation at the core of their predictive theory of organization, viewing organizations as “coalitions мейд up of individuals and subcoalitions” (Bolman, 2003, p. 191). Their The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice view implied a political framework with the central idea being, “goals emerge out of a bargaining process among coalition members” (Bolman, 2003). This includes “side payments” to keep essential coalition members The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice satisfied, and мейд more challenging by limited resources. For the manager, these political elements surface the need for the ability to influence others, and the need for a keen understanding of the dynamics The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice, distribution, and exercise of power – the ability to get things done. Competing goals, scarce resources, new knowledge, the resulting conflict, and use of power to get what individuals and groups need, describes organizational politics The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice that continues to be a key component of organizational dynamics and one that can be understood and managed.


The power framework, grounded in Max Weber’s sociology of domination, describes the The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice organization “as an arena of conflicting interests and values constituted through power struggles” (Reed, 1996, p. 40). Therefore, coalitions form, individuals with common values, beliefs, and goals, to gain power, whether by The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice authority, the rational viewpoint, or through ethical influence, the human relations viewpoint. Regardless of tactic, the aim of mobilizing power is to get what is needed to get things done. Although power The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice associated with the political dynamic that is a part of every organization is often viewed as negative, the manager that acknowledges the need to “be political” can use that skill to encourage productive dialogue and The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice learning, gain a better understanding of varying perspectives and points-of-view, and, if persistent, find a reasonable and politically sound solution to cross-functional problems. “We have to stop describing power The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice always in the negative terms: [as in] it excludes, it represses. In fact, power produces; it produces reality” (Bolman quoting Foucault, 1975, p. 192).


Part of that reality is what Henry Mintzberg The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice described as the “challenging and non-programmed” work of a manager (Mintzberg, 1979). Recognizing the need to align organizational structure with the organization’s mission and the given environment, Mintzberg (1979 designed a The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice five-sector blueprint or organizational chart to better manage varying missions and environments. The five sectors include the operating core of workers, the administrative elements of middle managers and supervisors that control the The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice operation, the specialists and analysts described as the technostructure sector who standardize processes and measure outputs, the support staff who support the work of others, and the strategic apex where the important decisions about The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice the organization are мейд (Bolman, 2003). From this five sector logo, Mintzberg went on to describe five organizational structural configurations, each addressing varying missions and diverse environments, and each with its own The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice set of management challenges.


In his 1979 publication entitled “The Nature of Managerial Work”, Mintzberg addresses those challenges by asking the question, “What do managers do?” (Mintzberg, 1979). His work produced a set The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice of ten (10) basic roles, three of which are interpersonal roles, three that are informational roles, and four that are decisional roles. These ten roles would aid the manager who “must design The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice the work of his organization, monitor its internal and external environment, initiate change when desirable, and renew stability when faced with a disturbance” (Mintzber, 1979, p. 169). Because of the variation in a manager’s work, Mintzberg The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice suggests a “contingency theory” – managerial actions based on a number of variables including the size of the organization, technology in use, external environmental factors, and individual needs (Mintzberg, 1979).


In Mintzberg’s view The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice there is no science in the job of managing – it is an art. In fact, he describes the manager as in a kind of “loop” due to the pressures and The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice complexities of the role.


“We find that the manager, particularly at senior levels, is overburdened with work. With the increasing complexity of modern organizations and their problems, he is destined to become more so The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice. He is driven to brevity, fragmentation, and superficiality in his tasks, yet he cannot easily delegate them because of the nature of his information. And he can do little The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice to increase his available time or significantly enhance his power to manage. Furthermore, he is driven to фокус on that which is current and tangible in his work, even though the complex problems The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice facing many organizations call for reflection and a far-sighted perspective” (Mintzberg, 1979, p. 173).


This could have been written in 2004 with one slight but significant change – “he” now refers to both “he The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice” and “she”.


Mintzberg, along with Katz and Kahn at the University of Michigan, and Lawrence and Lorsch at Harvard, had begun to develop an “open systems” model of organization (Quinn, 2003). Robert Quinn’s approach The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice was to view the manager not only as a rational decision maker, but one who had to function in highly unpredictable environments with little time for organizing and planning. “They are, instead The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice, bombarded by constant stimuli and forced to make rapid decisions” (Quinn, 2003, p. 8). The manager is expected to be a “creative innovator” and “politically astute” – all in an effort to respond faster The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice, compete more efficiently, and continually adapt to the changing environment. Key management skills have become political adaptation, creative problem solving, innovation, and the management of change – troublesome skills in a bureaucratic organization and critical The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice skills in an “adhocracy”, a self-designing organization.


^ 1976 – Today: The Emergence of Organizations as Cultures


In 1993, Peter Drucker, one of the most influential scholars and practitioners in the field of management The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice, declared the end of capitalism, as we know it:


“For two hundred and fifty years, from the second half of the eighteenth

Century on, Capitalism was the dominant social reality. For the last The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice

Hundred years, Marxism was the dominant social ideology. Both are

rapidly being superseded by a new and very different society. The new

society – and it is already here – is a post-capitalist society The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice…. The center

of gravity in the post-capitalist society – its structure, its social and

economic dynamics, its social classes, and its social problems – is very

different from the one that dominated The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice the last two hundred and fifty

years” (Drucker, 1993) – Guru Guide pg 293-4


Drucker declared that the knowledge that would be valued was “knowledge that could be applied systematically and purposefully” for results The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice – for Drucker, it was the only meaningful resource and the key to personal and economic success (Boyett and Boyett, 1998, p. 299). Leading in this post-capitalist society, where knowledge was the key resource, drove The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice theorists and scholars of the day to tackle the topic of leadership, and identify the characteristics that make an effective leader in times like these. The shift was from an emphasis on The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice management to an emerging interest in leadership.


In the mid-eighties, the notion of culture emerged as an additional facet of leadership, with Edgar Schein (1992) publishing “Organizational Culture and Leadership”, enlightening us on The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice the relationship between organizational culture and leadership. He defined culture as, “a pattern of shared basic assumptions that a group learned as it solved its problems of external adaptation and The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice integration, that has worked well enough to be considered valid and therefore to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to those problems” – those elements The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice that are “most stable and least malleable” (Schein, 1992, p. 12). Understanding culture, therefore, became a way of understanding what goes on inside an organization when different subcoalitions, subgroups, and varying occupational groups work together The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice. If leaders and managers are responsible for innovation, learning, and the management of change, it only seems reasonable that managers and leaders are able to conceptualize and create a supportive organizational The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice climate – a culture that is supportive of innovation, learning, and constant change. It is Schein’s belief that “organizational cultures are created in part by leaders, and one of the The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice most decisive functions of leadership is the creation, the management, and sometimes even the destruction of culture” (Schein, 1992, pg 5). He offers leaders a process for analyzing culture, building or creating culture, embedding culture, and managing The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice culture during various stages of growth and development.


Perhaps Schein’s greatest contribution to the field of organizational culture was expanding the concept of the learning organization and the learning leader The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice – the ability to build the organizations capacity to learn. “A learning culture must contain a core shared assumption that the appropriate way for humans to behave is to be proactive problem solvers and The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice learners” (Schein, 1992, p. 364). The leader, therefore, “attempts to develop a learning organization that will be able to make its own perpetual diagnosis and self-manage whatever transformations are needed as the The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice environment changes” (Schein quoting Bushe and Shani, 1991; Hanna, 1988; Mohrman and Cummings, 1989, p. 363). Building on the thoughts and ideas of Donald Michael (1985,1991), Tom Malone (1987), and Peter Senge (1990), Schein describes the learning culture as The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice one that:

“must assume that the world can be managed, that it is appropriate for humans to be proactive problem solvers, that reality and truth must be pragmatically discovered, that human nature is The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice basically good and in any case mutable, that both individualism and groupism are appropriate, that both authoritarian and participative systems are appropriate provided they are based on trust, that the The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice best kind of time horizon is somewhere between far and near future, that the best kinds of units of time are medium-length ones, that accurate and relevant information must be capable of The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice flowing freely in fully connected network, that diverse but connected units are desirable, that both task and relationship orientations of interconnected forces in which multiple causation and over-determination are more likely than The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice linear or simple causes” (Schien, 1992, p 373).


Although I have seen organizations functioning in varying degrees of what is described as a learning organization, I have yet to experience or The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice witness the complete transformation of an American corporation to a culture of true learning.

I have, however, witnessed the transformation of a small number of leaders to one of learning leaders; leaders The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice who have the following abilities, as defined by Schein (1992):



Schein summarizes by stating that, “If the The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice leaders of today want to create organizational cultures that will themselves be more amenable to learning, they will have to set the example by becoming learners themselves and involving others in the The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice learning process” (Schein, 1992, p. 392).


Geert Hofstede was a pioneer on the study of the impact of national culture on the workplace (Bolman, 2003). He argued that current management practices and theories “are The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice inevitably culture-bound” (Bolman quoting Hofstede, 1984. p. 249). The assumption мейд by both scholars and managers was that what worked in America’s workplace would work anywhere. I have been fortunate to The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice have the opportunity to facilitate manager leadership workshops for a US company in Asia, with a participant group largely мейд up of Asians – we know, walking in, that a foundational piece The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice of the workshop is the discussion and sharing of cultural differences and accepted management and leadership practices within the nationalities present in the group, and within a multi-national company. The managers The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice are from diverse backgrounds and cultures, and they know that often, management practices used in the US simply will not work in, for example, China. Hofstede recognized this as he surveyed workers The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice and managers in forty countries and twenty languages employed by a large US multinational company. He identified four dimensions that separated national cultures: (1) Power distance, or the measure of power inequality between The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice bosses and subordinates, as high or low, (2) Uncertainty avoidance, or the level of comfort or discomfort with uncertainty and ambiguity, (3) Individualism, or the importance of the individual versus the collective group, and (4) Masculinity-femininity The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice, high or low, as where men feel strong pressures for career success and there are few women in high-level positions, or the opposite as low in masculinity in countries such as The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice Denmark or Norway (Hofestede, 1984). Hofstede stresses the importance of a manager becoming bicultural outside his or her home country, in order to be effective and successful abroad.


Practical applications of Hofstede’s work The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice include leadership training and development, providing an understanding of how leadership practices may differ from culture to culture, and how global leaders can be developed. “Providing learners with various The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice models of leadership as obtained through a study of the dimensions and other sources will allow for sophistication in how leadership is both exemplified and accepted. “Good leadership behavior in one culture The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice may be considered rather poor behavior in another” (Bing, 2004, p. 83). Other applications include how to better communicate across geographic and institutional boundaries, leading and participating on global teams, and developing global competencies such as The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice business practices, leveraging joint ventures, negotiating, and managing change initiatives.


Peter G. Northouse, in his 2004 publication “Leadership: Theory and Practice”, presents a multitude of current approaches and theories applicable to the practice The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice of management and leadership. His examples and case studies demonstrate applicability in real-life organizations. The Table below summarizes these approaches, including their strengths and weaknesses.


Table 1


^ Leadership Approach

Description

Key Theorists

Strengths

Weaknesses


Trait Approach

Identifies leadership The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice traits or characteristics essential to effective leadership; focuses on leader not followers

Stogdill, Mann, Lord, Kirkpatrick and Locke

Is intuitively appealing, well researched, focuses on role of leader, provides us with assessment material

List of traits The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice is endless, does not consider situation, highly subjective determination of what is “most important”, not useful for training up and coming leaders


Skills Approach

Focuses on skills and abilities rather than The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice personality characteristics – technical, human, and conceptual competencies

Katz, Mumford, Zaccaro, Harding, Jacobs, Fleishman, Yammarino

Suggests that many individuals have the potential for leadership, stresses importance of developing specific leadership skills, presents multi-faceted picture The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice of leadership, and useful in leadership education

Too broad in scope as is addresses more than just leadership, does not explain how variations in a particular skill affects performance, claims not to be The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice a trait model but includes individual attributes which are trait-like, and skills approach was developed using a large sample of military personnel


Style Approach

Focuses on what leaders do and how they behave The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice – actions of leaders toward subordinates in various situations; two styles or behaviors are task behaviors and relationship behaviors; Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire and Management Grid developed to describe how leaders reach their purposes – concern The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice for production and concern for people – prescriptive rather than descriptive

Stodgill, Blake and Mouton, Ohio and Michigan studies

Expanded our understanding of leadership by researching what leaders do in various situations, substantiated by a The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice multitude of studies offering a viable approach to the leadership process, key to being an effective leader is balancing task and relationship, and prescriptive

Research does not link style with performance outcome The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice, failed to identify a universal style that could be effective in every situation, and implies most effective style as high task, high relationship – this remains questionable and unclear






Situational Approach

Based on different situations requiring different The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice kinds of leadership; leader must adapt style to the demands and different situations; effective leaders recognize the need to change the degree to which they are directive (task) or The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice supportive (relationship) to meet changing needs of subordinates

Hersey and Blanchard

Accepted and used by practitioners as a credible model for training up and coming leaders, practical and easy to use and understand, prescriptive value The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice, and emphasizes the concept of leader flexibility

Lack of strong body of research, four levels of subordinate development ambiguous and without theoretical basis, concern with how subordinate commitment is composed – not clear how confidence The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice and motivation combine to define commitment, studies fail to support the prescriptions suggested in the model, did not correlate education, experience, age, etc. with how they influence leader-subordinate The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice prescriptions of the model, more research needed to explain how leaders can adapt their styles simultaneously to the development levels of individual group member and the whole group, and questionnaire appears biased in The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice forced response to questions in favor of model

Contingency Theory

Concerned with both styles and situations and referred to as leader-match theory; leaders effectiveness depends on how well the leader’s style fits The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice the context; leadership styles are described as task motivated or relationship motivated; situations are characterized by assessing leader-member relations, task structure, and position power; suggests that certain styles will be The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice effective in certain situations

Fiedler

Supported by much empirical research, shifts emphasis from leader to leadership context and the link between the two, predictive and useful in predicting type of leadership that will be The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice most effective in certain situations, does not demand that the leader fit every situation, and provides data on leaders’ styles that could help develop leadership profiles

Unclear as to why certain leadership styles are more effective The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice in some situations than other, some question of validity of LPC scale, instructions on the LPC scale are not clear, cumbersome and to use in real-world settings and complex, and The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice fails to explain what organizations should do when there is a mismatch between the leader and situation.





Path-Goal Theory

How leaders motivate subordinates to accomplish goals; the link between the leader’s The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice style and the motivational needs of the subordinate within the work setting; leader can choose from directive, supportive, participative, and achievement-oriented behaviors to impact subordinates motivation

Evans, House, Dessler, Mitchell

First situational The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice-contingency theory of leadership to explain how task and subordinate characteristics affect the impact of leadership on subordinate performance, uniquely designed to keep us asking, “How can I motivate subordinates to feel The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice that they have the ability to do the work?”, and practical in that it reminds leaders to guide and coach subordinates along a path to achieve a goal


Difficult to use and complex, claims of The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice theory are tentative because of partial support for empirical research studies, fails to describe how a leader can employ various styles directly to help subordinates feel competent and trusted, and The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice path-goal theory could create a dependent relation between leader and subordinate failing to recognize the full abilities of the subordinate

Leader-Member Exchange Theory (LMX)

Focuses on the quality of exchanges between The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice leaders and members; high-quality exchanges produce less turnover, more positive performance, greater organizational commitment, better attitudes, greater participation, and can be used for “leadership making”; three phases of exchange are stranger The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice phase, acquaintance phase and partner phase; both describes and prescribes leadership

Dansereau, Graen, Haga, Cashman, Uhl-Bien

Strong descriptive in that it describes work units in terms of those who contribute more and those who contribute The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice less, only theory that makes the concept of the dyadic relationship the core of the leadership process, directs our attention to the importance of effective communication, and well-researched The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice to support how LMX is related to positive organizational outcomes

Conflict with value of fairness by dividing the work unit into two groups: in-group and out-group – gives the appearance of discrimination, support The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice the development of privileged groups in the workplace although LMX suggests that members of the out-group are free to become members of the in-group – question is how one gains access; needs The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice further development, and few empirical studies regarding the measurement of leader-member exchanges





Transformational Leadership

Distinguishes between two types of leadership: transactional and transformational; transactional is the bulk of the models whereas transformational refers The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice to the process that raises the level of motivation and ethics in both the leader and the follower; tries to help follower reach their fullest potential, raises their hopes and in the process The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice changes himself/herself

Burns, Downton, Bryman, Lowe and Gardner, Bass, House, Bennis and Nanus, Tichy and DeVanna

Widely researched from many different perspectives, intuitively appealing in that leader provides vision, treats The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice leadership as a process between leaders and followers, expands picture of leadership by moving beyond transactional elements, strong emphasis on needs and values of followers, and strong evidence that is an effective form of The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice leadership

Too broad, lacks conceptual clarity, questions around how transformational leadership is measured, some claim this model treats leadership as a personality trait or someone with special qualities which makes it The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice difficult to teach, can be perceived as elitist and anti-democratic as leader acts independently as heroes, based largely on qualitative data collected from leaders at the top of organizations questioning its use with lower The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice-level leaders, and it may have a tendency to be abused if the leadership is not challenged on values and vision


Team Leadership

Two functions of leadership: task behaviors and maintenance behaviors, i.e The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice. team performance and team development, with both an internal and external фокус; most current research discusses teams with single-leadership vs. and shared leadership

Porter and Beyerlein, Ilgen et al, Zaccaro The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice, Larson and LaFasto, Hackman,

Focuses on real-life organizational work in helping them stay competitive and effective, guide to help leaders design and maintain effective teams, recognizes changing roles of leaders The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice and followers, and helps in selecting team leaders who are up to the task

Not completely tested or supported, complex model in nature that does not provide practical approach or address issues of shared The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice leadership or usual situations, and difficult to teach and develop skills






Psychodynamic Approach

Leaders are more effective when they have insight into their own makeup and can gain a better understanding of their needs The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice, predispositions, and emotions; they are also more effective when they have insight into the same elements of their subordinates; focuses more on learned and deep-seated emotional responses that one may The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice not be aware of – and not able to change, the key being acceptance of these quirks and the quirks of others

Freud, Jung, Zaleznik

Results in a better understanding of the relationship between leader and follower The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice, applicable cross-culturally and exhibits a universality, emphasizes the need for insight into self and encourages the pursuit of personal growth and development, and ultimately results in the leader becoming a teacher and The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice counselor as well as carrying out traditional leadership role

Bias is toward abnormal or dysfunctional being, highly subjective, research is clinical in nature and often culturally biased by psychologists, lacking inclusion of diverse The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice cultures and populations, does not take into account organizational factors, and is not adaptive to training in the classroom





Contingency theory is a reoccurring theme, transformational leadership is a hot The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice topic and one that sells plenty of books, team leadership is proving to be a critical skill for those managing across boundaries, and the psychodynamic approach seems to be a “given” for anyone that intends The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice to grow and develop as a leader.


Other current themes and issues currently affecting organizations and leadership are women and leadership and ethical leadership. We have determined that there The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice is no doubt women can be leaders. Research suggests that although men and women exhibit similar behaviors, women leaders tend to be more participative than autocratic, which ironically suits the needs of 21st century The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice global organizations. The question, in my mind, that remains unanswered, is why so few women leaders reach the top. Explanations range from lack of management or line experience to not The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice being in management long enough to support natural career progression. Organizational barriers such as higher standards of performance required for women, inhospitable corporate culture, homophily, limited level of challenge, gender prejudice, and The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice lack of mentor relationships and informal networks - all of which have been studied – all contribute to the problem. Personal barriers such as family obligations and lack of political savvy also affect the status of women The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice leaders in organizations. As a result, some women leaders leave corporate life and start their own businesses – I believe there is a growing trend of women leaving high level The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice positions after working so hard to get there, because of what they see happening to men holding those highest of positions. They declare, “it’s just not worth it”, and they leave to The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice recreate a new kind of life.


The Enron scandal opened the floodgates to a reexamination of ethical leadership and what that means. Ethical leadership can be defined simply as “what leaders do The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice and who leaders are” (Northouse, 2003,). “The choices that leaders make and how they respond in a given circumstance are informed and directed by their ethics” (Northouse, 2003, p. 302). Ethical theories can be classified as theories The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice about leaders’ conduct of character, and their degree of self-interest vs. their concern for others. “In short, ethics is central to leadership because of the nature of the The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice process of influence, the need to engage followers to accomplish mutual goals, and the impact leaders have on establishing the organization’s values” (Northouse, 2002, p. 303). Ronald Heifetz (1994) based his work on emphasizing how leaders The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice can help followers use conflict constructively to effect ethical change. Robert Greenleaf (1970) approached ethics and leadership by describing servant leadership, arguing that by nature a person was a servant, and it was The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice inherent that a servant leader фокус on the needs of the follower, help them become more knowledgeable and capable, and eventually become servants themselves. Robert McGregor Burns (1978) described transformational leadership as the The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice responsibility of the leader to engage with the follower and help them reconcile their personal struggles and conflicting values, eventually raising the level of ethics and morality in both the leader The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice and the follower. The common thread pulled through all three approaches is the relationship between the leader and the follower - “I have read countless times about what makes an effective leader. Words like The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice motivational, challenging and inspirational are thrown around a lot. So are theories ranging from the need for emotional intelligence to principles of innovation and resilience. But there is a simpler way The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice to judge who makes a great leader: the number of people who would follow him or her out the door” (Hymowitz, 2004).


^ Leadership and Management: What is Timeless and Sustainable


Achieving organizational effectiveness The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice in a highly dynamic, complex environment challenges each of the above models and frameworks. It is at this juncture that scholars and practitioners have begun searching for multiple models in a The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice single framework, one that might provide a more contingent, universal view of leadership.


“By the mid-1990’s it had become clear that no one model was sufficient to guide a manager and that it The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice was in fact necessary to see each of the four models (rational, internal process, human relations, and open systems) as elements of a larger model” (Quinn, 2003, p. 11). Robert Quinn refers to the The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice integration of these four models as the “competing values framework” (Quinn, 2003), shown below in Table 2.


Table 2: Competing Values Framework (Robert Quinn, 2003)


Integration of Four Models
^ Human Relations
Internal

Process
Rational Goal $$$$


^ Open Systems

Criteria for The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice Effectiveness

Commitment, morale, participation, openness

Documentation, information management, stability

Productivity, accomplishment, direction, goal clarity


Innovation, adaptation, growth, resource acquisition

Flexibility or

Control

Flexible

Control

Control



Flexible

Internal or

External

Internal фокус

Internal фокус

External фокус



External фокус

Competencies or Roles

Mentor and Facilitator

Monitor and Coordinator

Producer and Director


Innovator and Broker


There The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice are eight values that operate in the competing values framework, each value complementing the one next to it and directly contrasting with the one directly opposite it, as shown The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice in Table 3 below.


Table 3: Eight values in the competing values framework

Toward decentralization, differentiation


Toward expansion, change


Toward development of human resources



Toward maintenance of the system

Toward competitive position of system





Toward consolidation, continuity
$$$$


Toward maximization of output


Toward centralization, integration

Quinn argues The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice that a managerial leader, a person with “high cognitive complexity”, must meet three challenges in order to increase their effectiveness as a leader, and by meeting these challenges a leader The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice is able to increase their behavioral complexity. Those three challenges are: (1) To appreciate both the values and weaknesses of each of the four models, (2) To acquire and use the competencies associated with each The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice of the four models, and (3) To dynamically integrate the competencies from each of the models with the managerial situations that we encounter (Quinn, 2003, p. 14). To increase one’s “behavioral complexity The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice” (Hooijberg and Quinn, 1992) is “to reflect the capacity to draw on and use competencies and behaviors from the different models, building on the notion of cognitive complexity defined as “the ability to act The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice out a cognitively complex strategy by playing multiple, even competing, roles in a highly integrated and complementary way” (Quinn, 2003, p. 15). This kind of thinking only supports the increasing complexity of the notion of The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice managerial leadership and the increasingly high demands of the role.


Paul Lawrence and Nitin Nohria (2002), two Harvard researchers, bring together ideas from a diversity of fields through what they claim as a ‘universal The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice theory of four drives’ – the drive to acquire, the drive to bond, the drive to learn, and the drive to defend. According to Lawrence and Nohria, these drives, located in the limbic The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice area of the brain, provide the motives that drive our decision guides. “These drives serve to energize and partially steer human reasoning and decision making (cognitive), perceiving (the senses The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice), remembering (representation) and acting (skill sets and motor centers) in individuals. A growing body of evidence from complexity theory suggests that even a few such fundamental drives, in dynamic interaction with each other The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice and with other parts of the brain, can generate the very complex behavior that characterizes everyday life (Lawrence and Nohria, 2002, pg 49-50). The responsibility of leadership, seen through the four drive theory lens The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice, means helping others to fulfill their acquiring drives, fulfill their bonding drives, fulfill their learning drives and help others defend their accomplishments and “rally the organization to fight the enemy outside The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice” (Lawrence and Nohria, 2002). The role of leadership then becomes a continual process of negotiating and renegotiating multiple drive contracts with it’s organizational members. “Any firm that establishes social contracts that provide all The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice participants with good opportunities to fulfill their drives will, in all likelihood, grow to dominate its industry” (Lawrence and Nohria, 2002, p. 257). Utopia? Perhaps, yet what better way to engage the emotions The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice, skills, and intelligence of people in service of an organization – and build loyalty, hard to come by these days.


If loyalty is hard to come by, so to are integrity, professionalism, and innovation. Peter Drucker The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice wrote the “Practice of Management” in 1954, as timeless in views and principles of management, as those management views of Mary Parker Follett in the 1920’s and 30’s. Drucker continually refers to The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice the need for integrity, professionalism and innovation in the practice of management, particularly in times of adversity – these times. “Adversity is the test of leadership,” said Xenophon 2500 years ago in the ‘Kyropaedia The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice’ – “still the best book on leadership (next to the Epistles of St. Paul)” (Zahra quoting Drucker, 1954, p.11).


“It’s easy to look good in a boom…The only thing new The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice is that the last boom considerably increased the temptation to fake the books – the exclusive emphasis on quarterly figures, the overemphasis on the stock price, the well-meant but idiotic belief that executives The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice should have major stakes in the company, the stock options (which I have always considered and open invitation to mismanagement), and so on” (Zahra quoting Drucker, 1954, p.11)


He makes the additional point that The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice integrity and professionalism are as much about the discipline and science of management as they are about the art of leadership. According to Drucker, “managers define what the organization is about through The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice their actions and deeds”, while leadership “gives the organization meaning, defines and nurtures its central values, creates a sense of mission, and builds the systems and processes that lead to successful performance” (Wittmeyer The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice quoting Drucker, 1954, p. 14). Managers’ actions and deeds reflect the values of the organization through the decision they make, the people they hire, the people they fire, and how they pursue The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice their goals. In the long run, the integrity of management reflects the ethics and morals of the organization.


Given the changing face of management and leadership, Drucker believed, and still believes The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice, that knowledge was/is the only meaningful resource and the key to personal and economic success. “It is becoming increasingly difficult for any one person to be the expert on all aspects The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice of the work that needs to be done, and this is true in a wide variety of contexts ranging from the R&D lab to the executive suite” (Pearce, 2004, p. 47). As a The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice result, traditional models of leadership are in question, and some believe that the future of leadership is in the ability to promote shared leadership in a team-based environment. Team-based knowledge work is the The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice result of organizations responding to the external pressures of a more competitive global environment – and an “increased need for a more flexible workforce, a reduction in organizational response time, and full utilization The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice of organizational knowledge, which can in part be achieved through the synergies of team-based knowledge work” (Pearce, 2004, p. 47). So, as we typically think of leadership as one person influencing The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice a group of followers, or a single person leading a team, the question is being asked, “is it possible and desirable for teams of knowledge workers to contribute to the leadership process with The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice what is termed as shared leadership?” (Pearce, 2004, p. 48). Members of a team become mutually accountable for a shared purpose and goals, and are therefore fully engaged in the leadership of The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice the team…”and are not hesitant to influence and guide their fellow team members in an effort to maximize the potential of the team as a whole.” (Pearce, 2004, p. 48). Because shared leadership is a The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice more complex and time-consuming process, it becomes situational and should be used only for certain types of knowledge work – work that is interdependent, creative, and complex (Pearce, 2004). The senior leader The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice still retains a critical role. That role, the role of vertical leadership, is one of designer, external manager, trainer, coach, sometimes transactional, sometimes transformational, and often a role of filling a void when The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice one appears (Pearce, 2004). This, in my mind, requires varying degrees of ego and humility, depending on the needs of the team. “The issue is not vertical leadership or shared leadership. Rather The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice, the issues are: (1) when is leadership most appropriately shared? (2) How does one develop shared leadership? (3) How does one utilize both vertical and shared leadership to leverage the capabilities of knowledge workers The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice?” (Pearce, 2004, p. 55). Given the new nature of our work, is this the preferred model of leadership?


Developing leaders is a current, critical фокус and concern of organizations – managers’ as coaches and mentors is, in effect The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice, recognition of the need for building systems that encourage and produce new leaders to ensure organizational survival (Drucker, 1954). “The manager is the dynamic, life-giving element in every business…in a competitive The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice economy, above all, the quality and performance of the managers determine the success of a business; indeed they determine its survival.” (Wittmeyer quoting Drucker, 1954, p. 16). It is in this way The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice, organizations and their leadership create value for both shareholders, and society.

^ Conclusions: Future Trends and Practices

Throughout my reading, and given the nature of my work and past experiences as a manager The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice and director, I find two themes of managerial leadership that continually emerge: transactional and transformational. Not transactional or transformational, but a combination and integration of the two approaches. It seems that the The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice attempts over the last twenty-five years have been attempts to integrate models by choosing the most substantiated pieces of each and producing yet another more simplified, practical model of management The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice and leadership, some successful, some not. It does not, however, seem practical for the manager/leader practitioner to keep multiple models and multiple roles in their head. The complexity of the subject is The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice overwhelming from a practitioner’s standpoint. It does seem practical to identify and pull the strengths from several, and “practice what they preach” in an effort to find what works for the The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice individual. From a conceptual level, I gravitate toward a model of leadership and management that thinks in terms of ‘transactional’ and ‘transformational’. Table 4 is a synthesis of the models and frameworks I have The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice described, given their transactional or transformational nature.


Table 4: Leadership and Management as Transactional and Transformational





Transactional

Transformational


Models


  • Rational, Internal Process, Structure, Power, Knowledge

  • Human Relations, Open Systems, Symbolic

Approaches and Theories


  • Trait approach

  • Skills approach

  • Style approach

  • Situational approach

  • Contingency theory

  • Path-goal The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice theory

  • Leader-Member exchange theory

  • Team leadership

  • Four drive theory




  • Transformational Leadership

  • Team leadership

  • Shared leadership

  • Psychodynamic approach

  • Ethical leadership

  • Woman and leadership

  • Four drive theory

Role of Manager and Leader

  • Planner

  • Organizer

  • Controller

  • Monitor

  • Coordinator

  • Producer

  • Director

  • Visionary

  • Innovator

  • Influencer

  • Mentor

  • Facilitator

  • Coach and Guide

  • Moral, Ethical Leader




Objective


  • A process that reduces chaos and produces The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice order and stability

  • Accomplishes mission

  • Defines the organization through actions and deeds

  • A process that encourages chaos (challenges status quo) and produces change and movement

  • Creates a vision

  • Gives the organization meaning while defining and nurturing its The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice core values

Overlap of Management and Leadership


  • Gets things done, i.e. accomplishes goals through people – influences

  • Plans, organizes, builds systems to encourage successful performance

  • Integrity, professionalism, and innovation reflect values of the organization and influence actions




  • Gets things done The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice, i.e. accomplishes goals through people – influences

  • Plans, organizes, builds systems to encourage successful performance

  • Integrity, professionalism, and innovation reflect values of the organization and influence actions

Culture

  • Fosters closed culture, a mechanistic The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice structure, rigid systems and procedures – a defense-like strategy (pg 233)

  • Focused on survival ability

  • Fosters an open culture, an organic structure with flexible systems and procedures – a protector-like strategy (pg 233)

  • Focused on sustainability

At certain times The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice, organizations thrive and prosper under transactional leadership, and at other times they need transformational leadership, particularly in times of rapid change (Vera and Crossan, 2004, p. 226). Based on a more contingent view of The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice leadership, “An ideal strategic leader would be able to identify – and exercise – the leadership behaviors appropriate for the circumstances” (Vera and Crossan, 2004, p. 226).


“There is evidence that leaders may possess The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice both transactional and transformational behaviors. Recent research has suggested that transformational leadership builds on transactional leadership and, in particular, on contingent reward behaviors (Avolio et al, 1999 quoted by pg 227). Shamir (1995), for The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice example, notes that by consistently honoring transactional agreements, CEOs build trust, dependability, and an image of consistency among organizational members. These can contribute to the high levels of trust and respect associated with transformational The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice leaders. In addition, a leader may excel at transformational behaviors but may choose transactional behaviors when needed; this is Quinn’s (1988) concept of a ‘master manager’” (Vera and Crossan, 2004, p. 227).


Mintzberg (1979) suggested The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice a contingency theory in light of the variation of a manager’s work, including the size of the organization, technology in use, external environmental factors, and individual needs. Although somewhat conceptual in nature The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice, the adaptive nature of this kind of leadership approach lends itself to differing conditions and constant changes present in organizations today. Young organizations respond favorably to transformational leadership, mature organizations The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice to transactional leadership, and those in a decline or renewal stage need a transformational leader. It also recognizes the importance of the psychodynamic approach to leadership – the importance of being more self The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice-aware and more insightful about oneself and ones capabilities – articulated as a facet of ‘emotional intelligence’ by Daniel Goleman (1998). It is also possible that as one gains a greater recognition and The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice acceptance of ones strengths and weaknesses, there is greater appeal to the concept of shared leadership within both leadership teams, and the organization.


Can this approach be practiced? I am currently working with The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice a hospital leader and leadership team in the midst of enormous change and facing increasingly demanding economic conditions. The board hired a transformational leader with a strong transactional style. His first two years were The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice spent building a high level of trust by using his transactional skills and style. His first challenge was squelching the entry of a nurses union to the hospital. In the third The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice year he became a learner, pushing the accepted boundaries of a stable, yet stagnant, culture, and influencing the organization and its members for the need for change – now. The culture is The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice changing. New hires fit the mold of transformational leadership primarily, with the fall back of transactional leadership. Those who could not move from transactional to transformation have “deselected” – they have been The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice forced out or have resigned of their own accord. Performance goals are articulated and followed as bonus plan has been implemented - a more contingent reward system to encourage new behaviors and performance. Learning is The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice emerging as a renewed core value, to support continued learning and new ways of thinking about problems. The CEO is becoming a learning leader, and a trusted, well-respected one The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice at that, both inside the organization, and outside in the community. I believe I am witnessing a leadership approach that blends transactional and transformational leadership, and one, when in practice, is working.


More The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice good news is that, according to Bass (1985, 1998) “transactional and transformational leadership behaviors can be learned through training programs” (Vera and Crossan, 2004, p. 236), which may make it additionally appealing to practitioners. Individuals can The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice develop both leadership behaviors and can have a positive impact on both organizational learning and therefore, organizational performance. A blending of the two approaches is further supported by Jim Collins’ “Level 5 Leadership”, as The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice defined in his 2001 book “Good to Great” – a blending of genius and personal humility and professional will. Level 5 leaders recognize the need for inspirational motivation, personal attention to followers, innovation and the The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice freedom to be innovative – a culture of discipline that encourages genius, supports freedom and expects responsibility. Level 5 leaders also recognize the need to “confront the brutal facts” and фокус on The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice performance, and the importance of producing results. These factors directly reflect the effectiveness and success of a leader.


Are transactional and transformational skills and abilities necessary for all levels of leadership? Given the nature of The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice their role, frontline supervisors and lower level managers should be focused on developing the competencies required for both their current role and their future role as leaders in the organization. Mid-level The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice managers, however, are currently being asked to both manage and lead. In future, they will be asked to fill the shoes of senior leadership and should therefore be open to The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice the notion of transformational leadership styles, including the importance of ethical influence in an environment where old problems must be thought of in a new way.


At the end of the day, I The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice turn, once again, to Victor Frankel (1959). He states, “in the final analysis it becomes clear that the sort of person the prisoner became was the result of an inner decision, and not the The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice result of camp influences alone. Fundamentally, therefore, any man can, even under such circumstances, decide what shall become of him – mentally and spiritually” (Frankel, 1959, p. 75). I believe this thought also applies philosophically The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice to leadership. To become a leader is an inner decision, a choosing of an attitude or stance that models ones beliefs and values in an active way, through our deeds and The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice conduct, in the interest of making things better and serving life rather than life serving us. I have heard a favorite leader of mine refer to leadership as “a calling The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice” – perhaps a higher calling. It’s intelligence, it’s hard work, and it’s a keen understanding and appreciation of human nature and human beings – a set of technical competencies and a set of The Practice of Management and the Idea of Leadership: An Overview of Theory and Practice emotional competencies, diverse enough and flexible enough to move with the changing tide and control our own destinies.
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