The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)...


The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno


Background: The New Consideration of Nature

The Renaissance, as an age of transition, was not conducive to the building of great philosophical systems. It contained, in germinal form, the directive The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... ideas of modern times, but under the guise of the past. Thinkers preferred to write in ancient Latin, and the style of their writing is also archaic. Under this external aspect The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)..., which smacks of antiquity, are hidden the signs of the next age.

The greatest representatives of thought, in the order of time, are Nicholas of Cusa, Telesio, Bruno, and Campanella; the most The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... important is Bruno. In the thought of all these men there is a new view of nature, in which nature is considered immanently, according to the forces inherent in it, and The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... is accessible to experience and reason. These forces are considered as living ones, vital spirits, demons; everything is animate; the physical world has a soul.

It is necessary to investigate these animate forces, for The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... it is on the basis of their activity that all events can be explained. It is because of this desire to bring into subjection the occult forces of nature that during the The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... Renaissance we find so widely diffused the science of "magic," which professes to know the good and evil spirits of nature, and to make them allies in good and evil enterprises The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)....

Also characteristic are alchemy, with its objective of discovering the philosophical stone which can change everything into gold; and medicine, with its hope of finding the panacea of evil by uncovering the The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... common animating force of the universe. This is a charlatan school, to be sure, but it indicates the tendency of some of the chief exponents of the age to explain nature through the The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... forces imbedded in it.

Hence we see Neo-Platonic tendencies, and the Neo-Platonic thinkers mentioned above. Although Neo-Platonism, logically developed, leads to pantheism, the thinkers of the Renaissance, with the The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... exception of Bruno, are not pantheists. Without any logical foundation they still affirm transcendency, but this more from faith than from conviction.

^ Now to the Philosophy of Giordano Bruno

I. Life and The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... Works

Bruno was born at Nola 1548 and at the age of fifteen or sixteen entered the Catholic Dominican order in Naples. Falling under suspicion of heresy, he was cast out of the Order, and The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... began a disturbed life of wandering, during which he roamed over half of Europe. He was at Geneva, Paris, Oxford, Frankfurt, everywhere teaching and writing and engaging in heated controversy The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)....

Invited by the Venetian nobleman Giovanni Mocenigo, who wished to study Bruno's theory of memory-training, he went to Venice. There he was denounced as a heretic to the tribunal of the Inquisition The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... by the very nobleman who had sponsored him.

At Venice, during the course of his trial, Bruno acknowledged that he had fallen into heresy and declared himself disposed to amend. Consigned The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... by the Republic of Venice to the Inquisition in Rome, he was again subjected to trial.

This time he refused to retract and hence was condemned to death as an obstinate The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... heretic. The sentence of death was carried out at Rome on February 17, 1600.

Bruno's principal works are: Della causa, principio, ed uno (Concerning Cause, Principle, and Unity); Del' infinito, universo e mondi (On The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... the Infinite, the Universe and the World); Eroici furori (Heroic Furors); De immenso et innumerabilibus (On the Boundless and the Innumerable); De monde, numero, et figura (On the Monad, the Number The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)..., and the Figure).

^ II. Doctrine Concerning the Universe

Elements of the speculation of Heraclitus, Parmenides, Democritus, and the Stoics, together with the doctrine of Neo-Platonic emanations and Nicholas of Cusa's theory of the The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... coincidence of opposites, as well as the new heliocentric theory of Copernicus nurtured the thought of Bruno. Under the apparent confusion of his teaching lies the unity and organic The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... wholeness of monistic immanentism, of which Bruno was the principal protagonist during the Renaissance period.

According to Bruno, the universe is infinite, full of a plurality of heliocentric solar systems which are The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... broken up and recomposed according to the theory of Democritus. The fundamental principles of the universe are two: matter, the passive principle; and the soul, the active principle. Both represent two aspects The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... of a single substance, two indistinguishable powers of a single principle, in which they are reconciled and united, and in which their differences are annulled, according to the principle of coincidence of opposites of Nicholas The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... of Cusa.

"All things are one," says Bruno. The soul of the universe is conceived of as intelligent, the ordinator of the world itself, the interior force of everything. Such The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... a force is not transcendent, but immanent; it adheres in things. It is God, conceived of as "Natura naturans," producing all and ordaining all to its end; it is infinite. The world, the work The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... of "Natura naturans," is "Natura naturata," which, as the effect of an infinite cause, is also infinite.

Individual souls (and not only the human soul, but the soul of every The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... individual essence, since for Bruno everything is animate) are the passing shades of the eternal becoming of the world. Bruno calls them monads. Birth is the individuation of the infinite in the finite The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)...; death indicates the return of the finite to the infinite.

Thus far the concept of Bruno is decidedly monistic immanentism. Nevertheless, besides the mens imbedded in all things, that is, the The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... soul of the world immanent in the universe, Bruno admits also the mens super omnia, that is, God, who transcends the world. But this God (quite different from the Christian God, because the world The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... does not depend upon Him) is the object of faith and not of science; Bruno admits this in order to overcome the materialistic pantheism of his system.

In such The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... a materialistic concept of the universe, any positive religion, including Christianity, is impossible. Religion for Bruno has practical but not theoretical value; it is an efficacious means of educating the ignorant masses through the The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... symbolism of forms. Consequently, Bruno's thought necessarily conflicts with the doctrine of the Catholic Church.

Bruno's moral system is opposed to the teachings of the Catholic Church, but is consistent The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... with his naturalistic immanentism. The end which man must realize is limited to the present life; it consists in the participation of the individual in the life of the universe. Virtue is not The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... renunciation or asceticism but "heroic furor" -- that is, the joyous consciousness of one's own excellence and of one's own participation in the life of the universe.

The system of The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... Bruno is a theoretical expression of Humanism, and his thought was to have a great influence on modern philosophy.


The Philosophy of Thomas Hobbes

^ I. General Notions

Hobbes' system is a synthesis The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... of Empiricism and Rationalism. The fundamental points of Hobbes' doctrine are:

^ II. Life and Works

Thomas Hobbes was born in Malmesbury in 1588. He was educated at Oxford University, which The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... was at the time a center of nominalistic Scholasticism. As tutor for a noble English family he had opportunities for travel. At Florence he came into contact with the thought of Galileo The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)...; in France he knew Mersenne, the great friend of Descartes. It was Mersenne who induced Hobbes to write his critical observations on the Meditations of Descartes.

Hobbes returned to England in 1637 with the The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... intention of writing. When the struggle between Parliament and the King broke out, Hobbes, who was a supporter of the absolute monarchy, retired to France, where he lived for The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... ten years. Granted an amnesty, he returned to England in 1651 and was reconciled with Cromwell. When Charles II, whom Hobbes had tutored, ascended the throne, the King granted a pension to his former The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... teacher. Hobbes died in 1679, having lived beyond the age of ninety.

Thomas Hobbes wrote one great philosophical work, which he divided into sections and published at three different times: De cive (On the The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... Social and Political Organism), a work that was further developed and later published under the title The Leviathan; De corpore (On the Body); and De homine (On Man). The vigorous thought of Hobbes The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... мейд a deep impression in his native country and abroad. The Leviathan is generally considered his masterpiece.

^ III. Theory of Knowledge

The whole of human knowledge is contained within the limits of The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... sensation. Sensations are due to an external movement which generates an internal reaction in our organism. Concepts are representations of qualities common to several distinct sensations, which in speech are The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... expressed by a common name (Nominalism). The mind operates on such concepts through analysis and synthesis, composing and dividing them into their elements. For example, by adding the concept of animality to that of The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... rationality, we have the concept man; by subtracting from the concept man the concept of rationality, we have the concept animal. This system is pure mechanical nominalism.

Nevertheless, Hobbes does not deny the The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... value of science, of knowledge of abstract causes. This science will be attained in fact as soon as we have an analytical knowledge of the elements and a synthetic understanding of The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... their combinations. Thus Hobbes believed that he had saved science as an absolute value, even though such a value is only phenomenal, being an operation of the mind and not The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... an objective contact with external reality.

^ IV. Metaphysics

Of the two Cartesian substances, Hobbes accepts extended material substance and denies the spiritual; or, rather, he makes the spiritual substance a derivative of material substance. Matter is The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... not passive, as it was for Descartes. On the contrary, it is endowed with motion, and this motion is from within. Thus for Hobbes there are two metaphysical elements: matter and The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... motion, which can be reduced to one, dynamic matter. The intrinsic motion of matter has given origin to the diversity of the inorganic and organic world. Life is thus a product The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... of matter and motion, and the human soul is a composite of very subtle atoms.

Hobbes does not deny the existence of God, but he is decidedly opposed to any positive revealed religion, including The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... Christianity.

Even the moral life does not exceed the limits of matter and of motion. Sensations, passing to the heart, generate pleasure and hate, that is, inclinations and repulsions. Men naturally The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... tend to pleasure considered as a form of self-satisfaction. But such a tendency must be rationalized by calculation, in order that it may bring greater pleasure. This is possible only The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... in the state.

^ V. Politics

The civil state, that is, the result of the passage of primitive man from the state of nature to a social life, derives from a contract the purpose of which The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... is to procure the greatest possible pleasure, a pleasure which could not be had in the state of nature. The state of nature in which man lived before the The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... formation of society, was founded on a savage egoism which drove man to secure a maximum of pleasure without hindrance from a norm of justice or mercy toward other men ("homo homini lupus est The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)..."). Every man was continually engaged in war against all other men ("bellum universale").

With the dawn of reason, man understood that he could not live in eternal warfare and that if he The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... wished to satisfy his instinct of egoism he must seek peace ("pax quaerenda"). The means of attaining peace consisted in man's ceding his natural rights ("jus non retinendum") in favor of an The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... authority which would ensure this peace and allow the greatest possible pleasure. Once man had ceded his rights to this authority, he was bound to obey ("pactis standum").

This contract The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... having been мейд, authority came into being in the person of the sovereign, who had not ceded his natural rights. The members of the state, then, have given up their rights in The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... favor of the ruler, while the ruler alone still enjoys the same unlimited and absolute power which belonged to all men in their primitive condition. The ruler must retain this power if he is The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... to have the authority and strength to dominate the instincts and passions of individuals and to ensure the maximum of good for all.

This massing together of individuals, dominated by The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... force, is the state, the symbol of which Hobbes believed he had found in the monstrous Biblical animal, the leviathan, which was capable of devouring all other animals. Thus Hobbes named his The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... greatest work The Leviathan.


^ Overview of 17th Century Philosophy

A Study and Critique

The period of transition from medieval to modern philosophy ended with the 16th century. In the 17th, there appeared more The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... or less rounded systems of non-Scholastic and anti-Scholastic philosophy. The most notable philosophers of this time were Francis Bacon, John Locke, and René Descartes. A common note in the philosophies The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... of these three, a note common to all the philosophies of the last three centuries and right down to our own day, is the confusing of the realms of sense-knowledge and intellectual knowledge.

Bacon The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)..., Locke, and Descartes are at one in another point: the mistaken effort to remodel and rebuild the whole structure of philosophy, Now, the man who is confused on the The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... proper spheres of sensation and intellection, and who, notwithstanding, blandly assumes that he knows enough to discard as useless all the achievements of his predecessors, is not only guilty of mountainous pride; he is deliberately The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... destructive of that bond of continuity and endurance which is at once the test and the guarantee of true philosophy.

We shall here make a short and sketchy study of the The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... chief doctrines of Bacon, Locke, and Descartes, and we shall glance briefly at the teachings of four other 17th century philosophers, Hobbes, Malebranche, Spinoza, and Leibniz.

^ 1. Francis Bacon, Lord Verulam, Viscount The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... St. Albans (1561-1626) was a native of London; he was educated at Cambridge. He was a lawyer, a politician, a statesman of sorts, and a philosopher. Such are the parts which history The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... assigns him. Rumor imputes to him two others: that of a dipper into public funds for personal profit, and that of the writing of the plays commonly ascribed to Shakespeare. We are interested The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... in Bacon solely as philosopher.

Bacon's Instauratio Magna or Great Reconstruction was a book which proposed to rebuild the entire edifice of philosophy. Bacon would first clear away, then build. To clear The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... away, he would have man banish prejudices (that is, prejudgments, long accepted notions) because these are merely idols in the temple of the mind. There are four types of such The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... idols:

The clearing away process demanded by Bacon recalls the Socratic The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... "confession of ignorance," but any resemblance in the two processes is superficial. Socrates was essentially a humble man; his clearing away of the self-esteem of the pupil was The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... a lesson in the docility required for learning anything. All sound teachers commend the process. Huxley, who failed to follow his own prescription, enunciated it well when he said that a sincere student or The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... scientist must "sit down before fact like a little child." But Bacon was, whether consciously or unconsciously, a proud man; his clearing away of "idols" was a snub to all thinkers who had The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... lived before his time. Socrates said in effect, "Let us labor to rid our minds of faulty notions, especially the notion that we are wise or well informed." Bacon The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... said in effect, "Now I'll take charge. Please rid your minds of the things I dislike very much."

Having cleared out the idols, Bacon would build. He would use the one The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... and only scientific method, that is induction. He held deductive reasoning useless; he rejected metaphysics. The first thing of all that the builder must do is the arranging of subjects of study The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)..., the "lineup" of sciences. The Scholastics, following Aristotle, had мейд this subordinatio scientiarum an objective thing; they were guided by the objects studied; in this they were realistic and sane. Bacon мейд The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... his arrangement of sciences subjective; he based it upon the powers or faculties of the investigator: memory, imagination, reason.

Having мейд out the list or schedule of sciences, Bacon would attack each with the most The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... careful observation and experiment. He would draw up lists, and follow tables of...

If, for example, the investigator The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... were trying to find the nature of heat, he would list all objects and activities in which heat is always present (Table of Presence); then he would make a list The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... of things that lack heat but appear to bear in themselves no opposition to it (Table of Deviation or Absence-in-Proximity); next he would list hear-bearing things to show variations in degree The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... (Table of Comparison); finally, he would list things incompatible with heat (Table of Absence or Rejection). Out of such slow and elaborate effort the investigator would learn at last the The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... true cause of heat, and through its cause he would arrive at a knowledge of its nature.

Bacon was neither a great philosopher nor a notable scientist; he was a literary theorist about philosophy and The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... science. His ambitious and impossible intention of making philosophy over foredoomed him to futility and failure. Three particular weaknesses marked his effort:

The second and third of these points still endure in modern philosophy, and they rob it of effectiveness and solid achievement. Bacon The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... has gone into history as the originator of modern empiricism, that is, the system of those who place all faith in observation and experiment, playing up the role of the senses and The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... minimizing the place of reasoning in the attaining of truth. Empiricism is sometimes called (with partial accuracy) by the name of sensism.

2. John Locke (1632-1704) was another notable exponent of empiricism The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины).... He was a native of Wrington in Somersetshire, England, and was educated at Oxford. His most notable piece of writing is ^ An Essay Concerning the Human Understanding.

Locke had the characteristics of most The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... of the articulate university men of his day; a petulant rejection of Medieval philosophy without understanding it; a self-confident notion of doing philosophy all over again from the ground up; a readiness The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... to speak with an air of finality upon subjects imperfectly mastered.

Now, the desire to see philosophical doctrines so clearly expressed and proved that none may doubt them is human The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... and natural and even admirable. But the assumption that all philosophy can be reduced to the clarity of A-B-C is fantastic. And the further assumption that all philosophers of past times have The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... been woolly-minded blunderers is ignorance and intolerable "cheek." The old impatience, the old want of humility, which brought in Humanism, the Renaissance, the Reformation, and all the other The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... thin veneerings which have tried to pass for truth are evident in Locke as they are evident in Bacon, Descartes, and nearly all non-Classical Realistic philosophers from the 14th century to The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... the present day.

Locke had doubtlessly in mind the recasting of philosophy, for he was not wholly pleased with Bacon's plan. Still, he seems to have had no detailed plan of his own. Indeed The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)..., he did not feel the need of any plan. He was convinced that, once the human mind had learned to grasp things clearly, once it knew its own powers and The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... recognized its true limitations, once it was sure of the nature and extent of its knowledge, the developing of philosophy would be a sheerly natural growth. Thus, Locke's special interest The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... was the critical question (the theory of knowledge), and he wrote of it in his famous Essay.

Keen as he was on clarity of knowledge, Locke did not escape the fatal confounding of sense The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)...-knowledge with intellectual knowledge. And so he proceeded to make confusion more confounded, so that one may take not only different, but opposite, doctrines from the premises his theories afford. Follow him in The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... one set of principles and develop these to the end; you find yourself in idealism, the dream-philosophy which turns reality into shadow. Follow him in another set of The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... thoughts, and you will be involved in sensism and positivism which takes the reality round us as the only thing there is, and denies value to the intellect and to reasoning (even to the reasoning The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... by which you have reached this dull conclusion).

This impossible agglomeration of conflicting theories was proposed, explicitly or implicitly, by a man of undoubted mental gifts who was thwarted as the The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... outset by his muddling of the basic question of all philosophy, the critical question. It is pathetic to realize that he knew it was the basic question.

Inevitably, Locke went wrong The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... in his ethical doctrine, especially in point of the norm or rule of morality; for out of man's philosophy of reality and knowledge comes his theory of morals, and Locke The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)...'s philosophy of reality and knowledge was wrong philosophy. Locke admitted the existence of a natural law, but it plays little part in his practical conclusions. His moral theory comes to this: our deliberate The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... conduct is good and praiseworthy if it conforms to public opinion of what such conduct should be; otherwise it is evil and blameworthy. This is not only a cheap and futile theory The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)..., but it is impossible to apply, for public opinion is the most fluid and changeable of things, and what is a virtue at one moment might well be a vice The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... at another. This theory of moral relativism is utterly false and destructive.

Locke is remembered for his distinguishing of primary and secondary sense-qualities in bodily things. In his study upon the nature The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... of knowledge, he had constantly to face such questions as: are sense-objects really what they appear to be; is the grass really green; is the whirling wheel actually in motion; is the The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... stone truly solid? Locke decided that there are certain qualities common to all bodies (impenetrability, extension, shape, rest, motion) and these are primary qualities which exist as objective things.

He said that there The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... are also other qualities not found in all bodies alike (color, sound, taste, odor, temperature, resistance) and these are secondary qualities which are largely subjective, that is, not so much objective The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... things as the perceivings or feelings of the person who senses them. Locke's distinction of sense-qualities as primary and secondary may serve us as a mere convenient list.

But The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... his theory of their objective reality cannot stand. For we are wholly unaware of the primary qualities except through the medium of the secondary. And if the secondary be unreliable (being largely subjective) we The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... have no reason to put any trust in the actuality of the primary qualities. Locke's theory on sense-qualities points the way to the self-contradiction of complete skepticism.

One The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... thing Locke did in a masterly way. He refuted innatism, the theory that our knowledge is inborn, and that it advances in us, not by the acquiring of anything from without The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)..., but by its inward growth or development. Apart from his refutation of innatism, Locke's contribution to philosophy is negligible; indeed he is a confusing and a destructive force.

^ 3. René Descartes The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... (1596-1650) has been called the father of modern philosophy, a title which would have more meaning if "modern philosophy" had any sort of consistency or would stand still long enough to be identified. For The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... all that, the title is justified. For "modern philosophy," although it is composed of wildly variant theories, is one in its tentativeness, its hesitancy, its dubious tenure. And the man who injected the note The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... of doubt as a positive element into human thinking was a delicate little French mathematician named René Descartes. Descartes -- whose Latinized name Cartesius explains the fact that his theories are called The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... the Cartesian philosophy -- will be gratefully remembered by all school pupils as the inventor of analytical geometry.

Descartes had a great mind, but he had the mental shortcomings of his time: the contempt The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... for classical realistic philosophy (which he took no trouble to understand); the lack of careful distinguishing between the essentially different types of human knowledge, that of sense and that of intellect; and The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)..., above all, the consuming desire "to shatter philosophy into bits and then remold it nearer to the heart's desire."

Descartes was a mathematician. He wished to make philosophy a The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... kind of mathematical science; at least, he wished to express it with mathematical clarity. As geometry beings with self-evident truths called axioms, philosophy must begin with some basic truth which The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... is so evident, so inevitable, that it cannot be doubted even by a fictitious doubt of the mind. Descartes found that we may doubt, or pretend to doubt, everything except ourselves doubting. In other The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... words, I can doubt everything by an effort of mind; but I cannot doubt that I am making an effort of mind.

That I exist as a thinking individual is the primal The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... and indubitable truth. Descartes formulated it thus: "Cogito ergo sum" (Je pense donc je suis; I think therefore I am). But the ergo (or the donc or the therefore) has not the The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... implication of a reasoned conclusion. No, the two facts of existence and thought are simultaneously and inevitably recognized. Upon the fact of the thinking existence, as upon the one fundamental certitude The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)..., all philosophy must be built up.

Upon this foundation Descartes proceeds to build accordingly. I think. My thoughts are reduced to elements; ideas and judgments and feelings. Ideas and feelings are what they The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... are; they are true in themselves. But when I make judgment upon thoughts and feelings I may go wrong. I am only safe in judging upon such ideas as I The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... recognize to be wholly objective, not my own making or devising.

Now, I find that I have an idea of absolute perfection, of absolute actuality. I could not have мейд up this The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... idea, for its perfection is beyond my powers. Therefore this idea must have been impressed upon me by the existing reality which is absolute perfection. Such a being exists. Thus am I aware, with full The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... certitude, of the existence of God. No God, the all-perfect, would not, in fact, be all-perfect if He were in any sense a deceiver. Therefore, He has given me The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... reliable, and not deceiving, knowing-powers. These, of course, are limited, for I am limited myself. My senses and my mind may not present reality to me perfectly, but what they The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... present is reality. Of the bodily world I can be sure, at the least, that it actually exists as an extended or bodily reality.

The human mind, says Descartes, is essentially The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... thought. A bodily being is, in its essence, extension. Plants and brutes are not truly alive; they have no life-principle or soul; they are splendid automata, fine pieces of machinery which the The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... Creator works. Man has the only type of soul there is: it is a thinking, a reasoning soul.

Descartes is wholly wrong, despite the fact that his intellectual powers were splendid. He The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... starts wrong, and the farther he proceeds along the way of his theory, the farther off he veers from the straight line of truth. Such is the tragedy of a logical The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... mind after a false start.

Descartes find the thinking individual the indubitable reality. But is thought more immediate and sure than feeling? Besides, if I am sure only of myself thinking, I The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... can develop no philosophy; for I have no self-evident certitude (in the Cartesian sense) of the value of my thinking. I cannot argue, as does Descartes, that the inevitable thought of an The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... infinite being proves the existence of such a being as the cause of the thought; for, according to Descartes, the principle of causality is subject to doubt. Nor can I argue The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... that God's existence is proved by my knowing-faculties, and then prove my knowing-faculties reliable because God would not deceive me; this is reasoning in a circle, proving A by B and B The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... by A. (The fallacy of the circular argument or begging the question.)

In nearly every point, the philosophy of Descartes is misleading, and in most points it is plainly false The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины).... Yet this philosophy, or welter of theories, has had a tremendous influence upon human thinking for nearly three hundred years.

^ 4. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), English politician and philosopher, was, in the main, a follower of The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... Bacon. He insists on the distinction between sense-knowledge and intellectual knowledge, and then immediately mixes them up confusedly, to the extent that he attributes a sort of intellect to The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... brute animals.

In political theory, he holds that man is not naturally a social being, but that civil society (i.e., the State) is the result of a social contract or social compact. He teaches The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... State absolutism, and declares that the civil power must regulate all our activities, even those of religion. In his theory of knowledge, Hobbes is a nominalist; in physical philosophy, he is a The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... materialist.

^ 5. Nicholas Malebranche (1638-1715), Parisian philosopher and ecclesiastic, thought it impious to say that a creature is the cause of its activities, since God alone is to be regarded as the source of The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... all action. Creatures furnish the occasion ("the stage setting") for God to intervene and cause them to act or operate. This quite fanciful and fallacious theory is called occasionalism.

Further The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)..., Malebranche taught that our knowledge (in its elements, that is, ideas) comes from the inborn idea of God, in the light of which other things are understood. For the logical order (that The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... is, the order of thinking or knowing) must follow the ontological order (that is, the order of things). As God is first in the ontological order, He is first in the logical order. This The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... doctrine is known as ontologism.

^ 6. Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677), a Dutch Jew, followed Descartes in an attempt to set forth philosophy in a mathematical fashion. His philosophy amounts to pantheism which is The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... involved in his definition of substance as a reality which does not require the idea of any other thing in order to be understood. Spinoza inconsistently insists on the existence of the individual soul The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... and its immortality, together with its obligation to practice virtue.

Spinoza is a somewhat pathetic figure. Ousted by the Synagogue, unacceptable to the Gentiles, he shrank from public notice and was The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... content with the humble employment of a polisher of lenses, a trade which returned him what sufficed for his simple requirements and gave him many hours of freedom for the study The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... of philosophy.

Spinoza has the appeal of genius misunderstood and maltreated. He has a particular attraction for the dilettanti and the parlor-philosophers. But with all regard for the man's sincerity, and with The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... proper commiseration for him as the butt of meanness and persecution, we must recognize his teachings as false and pernicious.

^ 7. Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (1648-1716) has been described as "the most The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... extraordinary example of versatile scholarship on record." He was a mathematician, and the inventor of differential calculus. He was a linguist, a historian, a theologian, a philosopher. Yet for all his splendid mind and The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... great learning, he was wrong in his fundamental philosophical theories.

He taught that the world is a composite of material and spiritual things, all of which are мейд up of unextended The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... elements called monads. Each monad is independent of the others, yet each, by the law of pre-established harmony, reflects in itself all the modifications or changes that occur in The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... every other.

Soul and body in man are like two clocks, each keeping perfect time (by the law of pre-established harmony) but without any real influence upon each other. The soul The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... is a monad; it reflects in itself, as do all monads, the entire cosmos, not by the influence of other things upon it, for such influence does not exist, but by being the sufficient The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... setting or occasion for such reflection through the operation of the law of harmony. The soul is unaware of most of the things reflected in it; time and experience, however, bring The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... it a clear and usable knowledge of some of the images, and these are its ideas. Thus Leibniz taught a sort of innatism.

God's pre-established harmony moves man's will to determine The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... action, yet in such wise that man remains free (physical premotion).

Leibniz offers cogent proofs for the existence and perfections of God, arguing from the contingency of the world of The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... creatures to the necessary existence of a Self-Subsistent Power and Infinite Intelligence. Leibniz also acknowledges and reshapes the "ontological argument" of St. Anselm, and reasons that if a Self-Subsistent Being The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... is possible, it must actual. Leibniz holds that God, by reason of His complete and boundless perfection, had мейд this world the best world possible (cosmological optimism).

Leibniz's doctrine on the The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... constitution of the world is called monadology. It is a theory in conflict with both reason and experience. Yet it intrigues unwary minds, particularly because the doctrine of pre-established harmony The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... cuts many difficulties from the path of physicist and philosopher. But it is a doctrine of unreality. Monads are unextended, non-bodily, and hence the universe has no true existence as an The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... extended reality; it becomes illusory, a dream-world. Thus Leibniz is but a step removed from idealism which denies value to the findings of the senses and reduces the world to a set of The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... mental images. The philosophers of the next generation took that step.


The Philosophy of the Early Greek Naturalists


^ I. THE IONIANS

General Notions

As Greece is a mountainous and rather barren country, its inhabitants have been The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... obliged from remote times to seek new lands that would offer them work and prosperity. At the beginning of the sixth century before Christ, we find one winding series of The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... coastal colonies, extending from the coast of Asia Minor to Africa, to Spain and to southern Italy. Here the Greeks were so numerous that they outnumbered the inhabitants of Greece properly so called, and The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... hence the name Magna Graecia was given to this far-flung territory. The colonies, favored by democratic liberties and economic well-being, and moreover having contact with a greatly advanced civilization, had The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... an opportunity to develop their natural sense of culture.

Among the Grecian stocks which have contributed greatly to the formation of philosophy is the Ionian strain, which was spread The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... through Asia Minor, the islands of the Aegean Sea (Ionia), and southern Italy and Sicily. It is among the Ionian colonies of Asia Minor that the story of philosophy takes its beginning, because it The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... was in the flourishing city of Miletus that the first three Western philosophers were born and lived: Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes.

The problem which claims the attention of the thinkers of Miletus The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... is for the most part cosmological. Nature, as presented to our senses, is a continuous "becoming" -- a passage from one state to another, from birth to death. However, this transition is not The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... arbitrary; it happens according to a fixed law: everything repeats itself or flows in cycles -- day, night, the seasons, etc.

What is that first principle whence things draw their origin at birth The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)..., and whereto are all things resolved in death? This is the problem of the Ionians: the search for this principle which is the first reason for all succession in the world of nature. It The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... is the principle which the Ionians believed they could discover in a natural element; by means of this element they attempted to explain nature through nature. The principle which they The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... assign becomes conceived of as divine. Thus the Ionian thinkers are pantheists in so far as they do not distinguish God from nature.

Thales

Thales was born at Miletus about the year 624 B The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)....C., and lived until about 546. Mathematician, astronomer, businessman -- to him are attributed many voyages and many discoveries. The more probable of these is that he was the first to foretell an eclipse.

For The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... Thales the principle of things is water, which should not be considered exclusively in a materialistic and empirical sense. Indeed it is considered that which has neither beginning nor end -- and The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... active, living, divine force. It seems that Thales was induced to proffer water as the first principle by the observation that all living things are sustained by moisture and perish without it The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)....

Further, Thales affirms that the world is "full of gods." It is not easy to see how this second affirmation agrees with the first. It may be that he was induced by The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... the popular belief in polytheism to admit the multiplicity of gods.

In The Radical Academy

Anaximander

Anaximander was born at Miletus about the year 611 B.C., and died about The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... 547. Probably a disciple of Thales, he also was a mathematician and astronomer, philosopher and poet. He was the author of a poem entitled Peri physeos, of which only a fragment is extant.

For Anaximander the The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... first principle of all things is the "indeterminate" -- apeiron. There are no historical data to enlighten us as to what Anaximander may have meant by the "indeterminate"; perhaps it The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... was the Chaos or Space of which physicists speak today. Whatever may be the answer to the this question, it is necessary to keep in mind that the problem consists in the search The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... for a metaphysical principle which would give an account of the entire empirical world, and hence the apeiron is not to be confused with any empirical element.

All things originate from the Unlimited The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)..., because movement causes within that mysterious element certain quakes or shocks which in turn bring about a separation of the qualities contained in the Unlimited.

The first animals were fish, which sprang from The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... the original humidity of the earth. Fish came to shore, lost their scales, assumed another form and thus gave origin to the various species of animals. Man thus traces his origin from The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... the animals. Because of this, Anaximander has come to be considered the first evolutionist philosopher.

^ In The Radical Academy

Anaximenes

Anaximenes also was born at Miletus toward The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... the end of the sixth century B.C., and died about 524 B.C. Probably a disciple of Anaximander, he composed a treatise of unknown title.

For Anaximenes, the first principle from which The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... everything is generated is aid. Air, through the two opposite processes of condensation and rarefaction, which are due to heat and cold, has generated fire, wind, clouds, water, heaven and earth.

Thus The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... Anaximenes, like Thales and Anaximander, reduces the multiplicity of nature to a single principle, animated (hylozoism) and divine, which would be the reason for all empirical becoming.

With Anaximenes the School of Miletus closes The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)..., for the turn of events in this city ranked as one of the principal causes of the Graeco-Persian wars and Miletus was destroyed in 494 B.C. Its inhabitants were dispersed The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... throughout the Greek world, and one of them was to reach Elea, a city of southern Italy, and there found the school which was to be called Eleatic, after the city of its The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... origin.


^ II. THE PYTHAGOREANS

Pythagoras, founder of the Pythagorean School, was born at Samos about 570 B.C. His life is surrounded by legend. Many voyages -- one of them to Egypt -- are attributed to him The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины).... It is certain that at about the age of forty years he came to Italy in Magna Graecia, and in Croton, the Doric colony, founded a school with scientific, religious The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)..., and political leanings.

To this school were admitted youths of both sexes of the high aristocracy who were divided into various sections according to the grade of initiation to learning. The political The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... aims of the school raised up much opposition, and in a popular uprising in 497 the school was given to the flames. Pythagoras seems to have removed himself to Metapontum before this uprising and The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... died there either in the same or the following year. Pythagoras left no writings, and the doctrine which is known under his name must be attributed to him and to his disciples The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)..., especially to Philolaus, who lived until the time of Socrates.

The Pythagoreans cultivated the mathematical sciences and the study of mathematics led them to the observation that everything could be represented through The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... a number. The number appears not as an abstraction, but as a real being, the generator of all things: they concluded that the number should be retained as the essence The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)..., the principle of reality.

This passing from the abstract order of number to the actual order of being today seems simple-minded and silly. It was not, however, so considered by the Pythagoreans, for they The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... were the first to observe that number applied not only to the motions of the heavens and the succession of time, but also to the harmony of sounds (the height of the The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... sound is in inverse proportion to the length of the string). It was easy for the cultivators of mathematics to bow down before the number and consider it as a The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... divine reality.

Through a long theory on numbers the Pythagoreans attempted to explain the multiple and the notion of becoming. Numbers are divided into even and odd; the even numbers unlimited, the odd The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... ones limited. Since everything is a number, the constitutive elements of things are the evens and the odds, the unlimited and the limited, the worse and the better. This radical opposition The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... would give the explanation of all the world of multiplicity, even its moral aspects: justice is represented by the square (even multiplied by even); love, friendship, because they indicate perfect harmony, were identified with The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... the number eight; health with the number seven.

Even and odd number originated from the "One." It is from the One that all the other numbers, which are the The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... constitutives of multiplicity, proceed. Multiplicity hence is reduced to unity, and it is in unity that all differences and contrasts are annulled, and the harmony of the multiple ends in silence.

The The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... perfect and sacred number for the Pythagoreans is ten, which results from the principal combinations: 1, 2, 3, 4 -- these are identified as the point, line, surface and volume, and when added, they result in the number ten The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины).... For the Pythagoreans there are ten heavens. To make up this number, they add to the traditional nine a tenth, which they call "antiterra." The heavens all revolve around one The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... central point which is called "Fire."

For the Pythagoreans the soul is harmony. Descended to earth through some mysterious fault (Orphic-Dionysian doctrine), it passed through various bodies (even those of animals) by successive births The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... (metempsychosis) to reestablish primitive harmony and to return to the place where it lived in happiness.

Pythagoreanism indicates progress over the Ionic School. It is elevated from a natural element The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... found in the Ionic School to a conceptual one, such as number. The Pythagoreans also affirmed the sphericity of the earth and of the other heavenly bodies, and the revolution of The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... the heavenly bodies around a central Fire. The concept of the soul and of its purification induced the Pythagoreans to ascetical practices although, of course, these were not shorn of superstitions.

 

^ III. HERACLITUS

Heraclitus , called The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... the Obscure because of his manner of expressing his thoughts in a paradoxical and enigmatic form, was born in Ephesus, an Ionic colony in Asia Minor. Of royal or noble stock The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)..., he lived alone and deprecated vulgar knowledge and vulgar methods. He lived between the fifth and sixth centuries B.C., but the exact dates of his birth and death are not The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... known. He wrote one works, Peri physeos, in verse, of which only large fragments are extant.

The preceding thinkers of Ionia and of Italy had sought to reach a principle distinct from becoming The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... and from multiplicity, a principle which at the same time would be the ultimate reason for that same becoming and multiplicity. For Heraclitus this search for a principle distinct from becoming is vain The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)..., for becoming is itself the first principle of reality, the essence of things. Everything that exists, including man himself, exists because it is in a continuous process of passage from one The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... state to another. If this passage should cease, reality would be annulled. "All things flow, everything runs, as the waters of a river, which seem to be the same but in The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... reality are never the same, as they are in a state of continuous flow." This is the central point of the doctrine of Heraclitus.

This process of becoming finds its origin in Fire, an The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... animated and primordial element, not to be confused with empirical fire. Because of its unstable nature Fire most closely corresponds to becoming. The process which this primordial element underlies is the so-called The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... stairway down and the stairway upward. Thus Fire is changed into water and this latter into earth (descending steps). Through the Great Year (of unknown duration) the earth will be transformed into The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... water and the water into Fire (ascending stairway).

The laws of becoming are antitheses, the passage from one state to its contrary (the law of contraries). "Struggle is the rule of the The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... world, and war is the common mother and mistress of all things." We would not wake up if first we did not sleep, and vice versa; the same is true The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... of everything else that exists. Construction and destruction, destruction and construction -- this is the law which extends to every sphere of life and of nature. Just as the same universe (cosmos The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)...) arose from the primordial Fire, so must it return to it again. Thus the root of Heraclitus' teaching is found in the double process of life and death, of death and life, which The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... forever is developed and developing.

Since for Heraclitus everything originates from Fire, the human soul is a small particle of this Fire, and in the universal palingenesis (rebirth) will return to Fire. Nature The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... is animated because the first principle, Fire, is animated (hylozoism).


The Philosophy of the Stoics


^ I. General Notions

The founder of the Stoic School was Zeno, who was born about 336 B.C., at The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... Citium on the island of Cyprus; Zeno dies about 254. He seems to have followed his father in commercial activity. Coming to Athens, he learned philosophy and became a disciple of Crates the Cynic. About The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... the year 300 B.C., he founded his own philosophical school, which took its name from the Stoa or Porch from which he lectured.

Zeno's writings were lost and we possess only The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... fragments. He was the first to divide the Stoic doctrine into logic, physics (which takes the place of metaphysics), and ethics. For Zeno, philosophy is practical knowledge, and it The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... must resolve the problem of life; hence ethics will occupy the central position.

Because of the different predominant tendencies, Stoicism may be divided into three periods:

^ II. Theory of Knowledge

The The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... Stoics held that all knowledge is restricted to sensation. The soul is a "tabula rasa" (blank sheet) upon which the impressions of sensations are received, and these and their combinations form the whole The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... of our knowledge (empiricism). The general notions (universal ideas) are nothing other than the repetition of similar sensations, in which common characteristics remain while particular notes are canceled. Memory and the word (speech The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)...) assist in fixing and reawakening the content of previous sensations.

The recalling or reawakening of the content of preceding sensations in the memory consists in that which the Stoics called anticipations The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины).... By awakening in ourselves the sensitive content had in previous times and fixed in the memory, we feel in anticipation what we will sense if the object should be presented again to our cognitive The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... faculties. But since not all sensations are true (e.g., a stick immersed in water appears broken, whereas it is not), to distinguish the true from the false the Stoics had The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... recourse to the criterion of truth, which they мейд to consist in assent -- that is, a judgment we give on the data of sensations. There are sensations which are presented in such The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... a manner that they compel the reason to assent, and these are true; the others, which do not have this power to claim assent, are false.

^ III. Physics (Metaphysics)

The The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... Stoics conceived of the universe as a great living organism, composed of soul and body, both of a material nature. The body (earth and water) represents the passive element; the soul (fire and The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... air) represents the active element. The soul of the universe, although of a material nature, has all the divine attributes: God is immanent in the world (pantheism). God is conceived of The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... as Heraclitean Fire which contains the germs of all things and actuates their becoming. Reason and providence are the coordinators of all things unto good. Hence everything that happens is the best that can The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... happen (optimism). What we call evil is ordained for the attainment of the universal good of nature and consequently is not a real evil.

Every activity is reduced to movement The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... and finds its root in mechanical necessity. What happens must happen and it is not possible for it to happen otherwise (Democritean fatalism).

The human soul is a spark of the original Fire, God The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)...; but as it is of a material nature it is submitted to the universal laws of fatal necessity. The soul alone enjoys a temporary afterlife until such time as the The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... great palingenesis (rebirth) of the world, which will resolve everything into the primitive Fire. Then will begin another cycle in the form of the descending and ascending stairway of Heraclitus (the law of eternal The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... return).

In such a concept there is no place for liberty -- either for God or for man. Everything happens according to the inexorable laws of movement, whether in God or in The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... man. This physics, departing from the visible world, and speaking of itself as the root of all things, is at bottom a metaphysics. But it is a decadent and contradictory metaphysics The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)....

^ IV. Ethics

Virtue is the sole good, in so far as it is, considered in itself, happiness for the sage. Hence virtue should be desired as a virtue and not for the sum of pleasures The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... which can be derived from it. Virtue is an end in itself and not a means to attaining the good. In the earlier philosophies, virtue had also been considered as a means The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... to attaining peace of soul, in which the ideal of the sage was мейд to consist.

As virtue is the "summum bonum," so also is vice the greatest evil. All that The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... is neither virtue nor vice is indifferent (riches, pleasures, life, death, etc.). These will be good if coordinated with virtue; otherwise they will be evil. But just what did the Stoics mean by virtue The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... and vice? Virtue signifies living according to reason. Since reason tells us that all that happens must happen and that it happens so as to actuate a superior good willed by the The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... providence of God, virtue consists not only in not desiring anything except what happens, but in accepting with eagerness anything that does happen. He is foolish who desires other The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... than what happens, while he is a sage who knows how to give his assent only to what happens, not only without regret for the contrary but without any desire for that which The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... does not occur.

The life of the sage is not only мейд up of reason but also of passions and the emotions to which they give life. For the Stoic the passions The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... and the emotions represent the irrational, because they tend to turn away reason from that which indeed must happen. In this opposition vice consists. Vice, hence, is everything that tends to oppose itself The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... to reason, every desire or emotion which opposes itself to the natural development of nature.

Since the Stoic sage must avoid every surprise that can come from this irrational world The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)..., not only must he control the passions, as Aristotle asserted, but he must also eradicate them, strive never to feel their presence, and be indifferent to every emotion whether directed toward cruelty The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... or toward piety. It is in this complete domination of reason over the passions and the emotions that Stoic apathy consists. In a word, the Stoic must be like a god who, closed up The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... in his reason, passes among men without a care for all that happens.

Nothing must ever disturb this solemn indifference of reason for human events. If such events threaten to disturb The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... this indifference of reason, the Stoic sage will have recourse to death, because death, as we have noted, is in itself indifferent and is good if coordinated with virtue. It is better The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... to flee life than to lose tranquillity of spirit. Suicide, so common among the Stoics, is in contradiction to that forcefulness of spirit so affected by them.

Stoic theories were diffused widely The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... in the ancient world on account of their alluring qualities -- the praise of virtue, the sole good. Also the theories produced various goods, such as the overcoming of racial sentiment and The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... the supplanting of it with cosmopolitanism. The Stoic is a citizen of the world because wherever he is, he lives according to reason, and is at home in the midst of his own The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)....

The Stoic theories also brought about a certain alleviation of the condition of slaves, since, considering all men as particles of Fire and hence of God, there was no further motive The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... for some men to dominate others. Such dominion proceeded from the irrational part of nature. The practical effects, however, of philanthropy were modest. Indeed, as a consequence of another important principle of their theory The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... -- that the virtuous man must not have any connection with vicious man -- Stoics were led to put an uncompromising distance between the sage and the multitude of men; i.e., between the The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... Stoic who lives according to reason and the others who live according to their passions. Of such a disparity the Stoic is conscious and proud.

Thus the Stoic seems like a The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... god among the multitude of the foolish, unmoved by the accidents of nature and insensible to the miseries of others. Stoic virtue then is reduced to intellectual pride through which the The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... Stoic shuts himself up within himself, setting himself apart from all others. He has no care for others, and indeed despises them because they are not wise. In this, Stoic virtue is The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... distinguished, for instance, from the concept of later Christian virtue, which is based on humility and charity.


^ The Philosophy of Thomas Aquinas



For a more advanced & comprehensive discussion, see:
The Philosophical System of Thomas Aquinas The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)..., by Maurice de Wulf



^ I. The Life of Thomas Aquinas --1225-1274

The "Angelic Doctor"

 

Thomas Aquinas, born of a noble family in Rocca Secca, near Aquino in 1225, was to complete the magnificent The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... synthesis of Scholasticism.

As a very young boy, he went to Monte Cassino, the celebrated Benedictine monastery which at the time was headed by one of his uncles. He displayed such brilliance The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... that the monks advised his father to send him to the University of Naples, where he could receive a more advanced education.

While in Naples, he entered the Dominican Order. His mother The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)..., far from favorable to this move, hastened to Naples; but the Dominicans, fearing her opposition, had already send Thomas to Rome in the hope that he would eventually be able to reach The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... Paris or Cologne.

His brothers captured him on the road and held him prisoner in the fortress of San Giovanni at Rocca Secca, where he remained almost two years while his family tried to The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... dissuade him from following his vocation.

Finally released, he was sent to Rome, then to Paris and Cologne where he studied in the school of Albertus Magnus. There he was The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... introduced to the study of Aristotelianism and completed his theological studies.

In 1252, Thomas Aquinas was sent to Paris to further his studies and then to teach, which he continued to do until The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... 1260. In that year he returned to the Roman province of his Order, where he was given various offices of administration and education in the province.

In 1269 he was again in Paris The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)..., where he carried on the controversy against the Averroism of Siger of Brabant. In 1272 he went to Naples to assume the chair of theology at the university there. At the beginning of 1274 he set out The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... with a companion for the Council of Lyons, but died en route, at the Cistercian monastery of Fossa Nuova near Terracina, on March 7, at the early age of forty-nine The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины).... He was proclaimed a saint by the Church, and by posterity has been acclaimed as the Angelic Doctor.



^ II. The Works of Thomas Aquinas

The works of Thomas Aquinas may be conveniently divided into four The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... groups:

1. COMMENTARIES

2. SUMMAE

3. QUESTIONS

4. OPUSCULA (selected examples)



III. An Introduction to His Doctrine

Thomas Aquinas was the first The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... to recognize the fact that Aristotelian intellectualism would be of great help for the study of philosophy as well as theology. But the introduction of Aristotle's works involved the solution of The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... the disputed question of the relationship between philosophy and theology.

At the time of Aquinas, besides the Averroist theory of the double truth, by virtue of which philosophy and theology were not only The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... separate but opposed, there was also Augustinianism, which was largely accepted in the School and held that no real distinction between philosophy and theology was possible.

This confusion between philosophy and The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... theology was a necessary consequence of the theory of illumination, according to which the human intellect was considered incapable of abstracting intelligibles from the data of experience, but rather received them from the The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... Divine Teacher.

This Teacher communicated to the intellect the intelligibles regarding the material things of the surrounding world as well as those concerning the invisible and supernatural world. Thus The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... the human intellect was capable of understanding not only material things but also the mysteries of religion. Hence no distinction between philosophy and theology was possible.

Thomas Aquinas sharply opposed both Averroism and Augustinianism The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины).... He did not accept the theory of the double truth, not only because of its irreligious consequences regarding the mortality of the human soul, but because he was convinced of the falsity of The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... such a theory.

^ For Aquinas, what reason shows to be true is absolutely true, so that the opposite is absolutely false and impossible. (1)

If religion, therefore, teaches something that is The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... opposed to reason, as the Averroists maintained it does, it would teach what is absolutely false and impossible.

Two contradictory truths cannot be admitted; truth is one, either in the field The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... of reason or of religion. The two fields are separate but not opposed. There are religious truths -- such as the mystery of the Trinity and the Incarnation -- which the human intellect cannot penetrate; and The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... these truths must accepted on the authority of revelation.

Parallel to them, there are natural truths concerning this visible world which are intelligible to the human mind and are the object of The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... philosophy and science.

To the question whether there also some truths which at the same time are revealed and open to rational demonstration, Aquinas answers yes. Such truths are the existence of The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... God and the immortality of the human soul, which are demonstrable by reason. God revealed them, however, in order to make these truths accessible to the minds of those who cannot attain philosophical The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... investigation. (2)

But Aquinas also opposed Augustinian illumination. Granting that the human soul is intellectual by nature, he maintains that the human intellect by its natural power is able to draw The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... the intelligibles from material objects. Besides its own natural power, the human intellect does not need any special divine assistance in abstracting the intelligibles from the data of experience.

Indeed, if The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... Aristotle, a pagan philosopher, could establish a systematic and rational interpretation of the visible world, we must admit that the human intellect has the power of knowing some fundamental principles and is capable The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... of drawing therefrom a perfect science without divine assistance.

Moreover, since with Aristotle we know what rational demonstration means, we can see how vain is the assumption of the Augustinians that the mysteries of The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... faith can be demonstrated "by means of necessity."

The truths of faith are above human understanding. They are the object of faith and not of science. Hence philosophy and The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... theology are distinct and this distinction must be retained.

Although distinct, they are related. Philosophy shows the necessity of faith by demonstrating the existence of God and the immortality of the soul. Theology on The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... the other хэнд helps philosophy to reflect more deeply and to correct itself if some philosophical conclusion is contrary to the mysteries of faith. (3)


^ The Philosophy of Immanuel Kant

General Notions

The The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... conflict between Rationalism and Empiricism, which was protracted over a century and a half, had resulted in a general loss of respect for the teachings of both philosophy and science. Rationalism had The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... failed in its attempt to establish the transcendence of God over nature. Instead, it had become hopelessly ensnared in the implicit pantheism of Descartes, Malabranche, and Leibniz, and in the explicit pantheism of Spinoza.

On The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... the other хэнд, Empiricism had failed in its endeavor to prove the existence of the world of nature distinct from thought, and had lost itself in Skepticism. This failure of Rationalism The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... and Empiricism was but the logical outcome of the phenomenalism upon which both were based -- that is, the teaching that man does not know things (reality), but only the appearances The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... which these things produce in us.

Kantian Criticism represents an attempt to unite Rationalism and Empiricism in a superior kind of phenomenalism. For Kant, it is man who constructs his own world. The human spirit The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)..., through certain a priori forms, organizes the blind data of experience and builds the sciences of mathematics and physics; through the autonomous will it constructs the world of morality; through sentiment The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... it considers reality in relation to some end and reads into all things on inherent tendency to unity.

These varied examples of human activity comprise what Kant called his "Copernican Revolution," which may The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... be summed up as follows: That which man must know, do and believe finds its justification not in reality existing in itself (noumenon), as traditional metaphysics held, but in the theoretical, practical The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... and aesthetic faculties of man. A knowledge of the activities of these faculties is, according to Kant, the necessary preparation for all metaphysics. (The term "noumenon" is hardly translatable. It is taken The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... to mean the "res in se" -- Kant's "Ding-an-sich" -- the thing in itself, or the object, as opposed to the phenomenon, the subjective effect produced in our consciousness.)

If The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... in retrospect Kantian Criticism marks the crossroads and the sublimation of the Rationalism and Empiricism which preceded it, it is no less true that Kantian Criticism contains within itself the The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... germ of all subsequent philosophical thought, including contemporary philosophy. The two major philosophical movements of the last century, Idealism and Positivism, have their source in the teachings of Kant.

Idealism, rejecting the noumenon The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... entirely, reduces reality to the status of the phenomena of an impersonal "ego" displaying its activity dialectically. Positivism, on its part, reduces reality to mere phenomena of matter. From Idealism and Positivism The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... comes contemporary Existentialism, a philosophy devoid of metaphysics and purporting to give knowledge of a world acting by means of immanent forces. Of course, Existentialism, like its forebears, is unable to give The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... any definitive solution to the perennial problems of philosophy.

^ Life and Works

Immannuel Kant was born in Konigsberg in East Prussia on April 22, 1724. He began his studies at the Collegium Fredericianum, one The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... of the celebrated centers of German Pietism. Later he enrolled in the school of philosophy at the University of Konigsberg, where he studied the rationalistic philosophy of Wolff and the mathematics and physics of Newton The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины).... On leaving the university he spent nine years as tutor in several distinguished families.

He returned to Konigsberg in 1755 and published his General Natural History and Theory of Heavens The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)..., in which he discusses the hypothesis that the solar system had taken its origin from primitive nebulous matter. The following year Kant began teaching at the University of Konigsberg, and remained there until 1797. The year The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... 1756 marked a renewal of interest in philosophical inquiry. Under the stimulus of the empiricism of Hume and the naturalism of Rousseau, he began to plan a critical revision of The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... the dogmatic rationalism of Leibniz and Wolff, to which he had adhered during the period he called his "dogmatic slumber."

The resulting doubts found their expression in the work The Dreams of The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... a Visionary Illustrated with the Dreams of Metaphysics, which Kant wrote in 1766. The visionary of whom he spoke was the Swedish metaphysician Swedenborg, whose teachings were the subject of much heated discussion at that The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... time. Named to the chair of Logic and Metaphysics at the University of Konigsberg in 1779, Kant inaugurated his course of lectures with the dissertation De mundi sensibilis atque intelligibilis formis The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... et principiis, in which he shows for the first time his tendency to adopt an independent system of philosophy.

However, it was not until ten years later that his "pre-critical" period was brought The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... to a close. In 1781 Kant emerged as the exponent of transcendental criticism with the publication of his first Critique. The "critical period" thus begun endured until 1794. Following his publication of The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... certain religious works which were at variance with the principles of traditional Christianity, Kant received orders from King Frederick William II enjoining him to abstain from further concern about religious matters in The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... his teaching and writing. Kant submitted to the royal command.

Retired from teaching on account of age and infirmity, Kant spend his last years in reediting his works. He died in his native The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... city on February 28, 1804.

The principal works of Kant's "critical period" are the following: the Critique of Pure Reason, in which he examines human reason and concludes that it is capable The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... of constructing science but not metaphysics. In 1783 he published the Prolegomena or Prologues to any Future Metaphysics, wherein he examines the problem from another point of view. In 1785 his Foundation for the Metaphysics of The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... Ethics appeared, followed by the Critique of Practical Reason, in which he treats the moral problem according to the principles of transcendental criticism. In his Critique of Judgment he examines the problem of The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... finalism in nature and the aesthetic problem. The three Critiques form a single masterpiece and are an exposition of Kant's definitive thought.

"Critique of Pure Reason"

Rationalism and Empiricism The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... undertook to resolve the problem: "What value has that which I know (ideas or impressions) in relation to my obtaining knowledge of the physical world, and in relation to what I The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... must do?" The problem was both epistemological and ethical. To solve the difficulty, Rationalism -- from Descartes to Leibniz -- had begun with the assumption that the human mind is endowed with innate ideas. Proceeding The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... by deduction from these innate ideas, Rationalism had constructed a knowledge endowed with universality (since innate ideas are common to all minds) and necessity (a quality which all scientific and philosophical knowledge must The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... possess). But it had not been able to show the validity of this knowledge in reference to the world of nature without falling into pantheism. Furthermore, in any consideration of The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... a transcendent God, the order of ideas remained always separate and distinct from the order of things.

Empiricism, on the other хэнд, had sought a solution to the same question by beginning with sense impresssions The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)..., which it declared to be copies of the object perceived and hence valid for a knowledge of the world of nature. However, it had not succeeded in demonstrating the universality and necessity The Philosophy of Giordano Bruno - Рабочая программа по дисциплине иностранный язык (английский) (наименование дисциплины)... of such knowledge. Every perception, even though multiplied ad infinitum, remains always

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