The Media and the Rwanda Genocide


The Media and the Rwanda Genocide

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THE MEDIA AND THE RWANDA GENOCIDE

Edited by
Allan Thompson

With a Statement by
Kofi Annan


First published 2007 by Pluto Press
345 Archway Road, London N6 5AA
and The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 839 Greene Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48106
www.plutobooks.com

International Development Research Centre
PO Box 8500, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1G 3H9
www.idrc.ca/info@idrc.ca
ISBN 1–55250–338–0 (e-book)

Fountain Publishers Ltd
Fountain House, 55 Nkrumah The Media and the Rwanda Genocide Road, P.O. Box 488, Kampala, Uganda
www.fountainpublishers.co.ug
E-mail: fountain@starcom.co.ug
ISBN-10 9970–02–595–3
ISBN-13 978–9970–02–595–4

Copyright © Allan Thompson, 2007. Statement by Kofi Annan, © 2007

The right of Allan Thompson The Media and the Rwanda Genocide to be identified as the author of this work has been asserted by him in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
A catalogue The Media and the Rwanda Genocide record for this book is available from the British Library

Hardback
ISBN-13 978 0 7453 2626 9
ISBN-10 0 7453 2626 9

Paperback
ISBN-13 978 0 7453 2625 2
ISBN-10 0 7453 2625 0

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Contents

^ Message to Symposium on the Media and the Rwanda Genocide
Kofi Annan

ix

Preface

xi

^ Notes on Contributors

xiii

1 Introduction
Allan Thompson

1

2 The The Media and the Rwanda Genocide Media Dichotomy
^ Roméo Dallaire

12

3 Rwanda: Walking the Road to Genocide
Gerald Caplan

20

^ PART ONE: HATE MEDIA IN RWANDA

 

4 Call to Genocide: Radio in Rwanda, 1994
Alison Des Forges

41

5 RTLM Propaganda: the Democratic Alibi
^ Jean-Pierre Chr The Media and the Rwanda Genocideétien

55

6 Kangura: the Triumph of Propaganda Refined
Marcel Kabanda

62

7 Rwandan Private Print Media on the Eve of the Genocide
^ Jean-Marie Vianney Higiro

73

8 Echoes of Violence: Considerations on Radio and Genocide in The Media and the Rwanda Genocide Rwanda
Darryl Li

90

9 RTLM: the Medium that Became a Tool for Mass Murder
^ Mary Kimani

110

10 The Effect of RTLM's Rhetoric of Ethnic Hatred in Rural Rwanda
Charles Mironko

125

11 Journalism in a Time of Hate Media
Thomas The Media and the Rwanda Genocide Kamilindi

136

^ PART TWO: INTERNATIONAL MEDIA COVERAGE OF THE GENOCIDE

 

12 Reporting the Genocide
Mark Doyle

145

13 Who Failed in Rwanda, Journalists or the Media?
^ Anne Chaon

160

14 Reporting Rwanda: the Media and the Aid Agencies
Lindsey Hilsum

167

15 Limited Vision: How The Media and the Rwanda Genocide Both the American Media and Government Failed Rwanda
^ Steven Livingston

188

16 Missing the Story: the Media and the Rwanda Genocide
Linda Melvern

198

17 What Did They Say? African Media Coverage of the First 100 Days of The Media and the Rwanda Genocide the Rwanda Crisis
^ Emmanuel C. Alozie

211

18 Exhibit 467: Genocide Through a Camera Lens
Nick Hughes

231

19 Media Failure over Rwanda's Genocide
^ Tom Giles

235

20 A Genocide Without Images: White Film Noirs
Edgar Roskis

238

21 Notes on Circumstances that Facilitate The Media and the Rwanda Genocide Genocide: the Attention Given to Rwanda by the Media and Others Outside Rwanda Before 1990
^ Mike Dottridge

242

22 The Media's Failure: a Reflection on the Rwanda Genocide
Richard Dowden

248

23 How the Media missed the Rwanda Genocide
^ Alan The Media and the Rwanda Genocide J. Kuperman

256

24 An Analysis of News Magazine Coverage of the Rwanda Crisis in the United States
Melissa Wall

261

^ PART THREE: JOURNALISM AS GENOCIDE – THE MEDIA TRIAL

 

25 The Verdict: Summary Judgement from the The Media and the Rwanda Genocide Media Trial

277

26 The Pre-Genocide Case Against Radio-Télévision Libre des Milles Collines
^ Simone Monasebian

308

27 The Challenges in Prosecuting Print Media for Incitement to Genocide
Charity Kagwi-Ndungu

330

28 'Hate Media' – Crimes Against Humanity and The Media and the Rwanda Genocide Genocide: Opportunities Missed by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
^ Jean-Marie Biju-Duval

343

29 A Lost Opportunity for Justice: Why Did the ICTR Not Prosecute Gender Propaganda?
Binaifer Nowrojee

362

^ PART FOUR: AFTER THE GENOCIDE The Media and the Rwanda Genocide AND THE WAY FORWARD

 

30 Intervening to Prevent Genocidal Violence: the Role of the Media
Frank Chalk

375

31 Information in Crisis Areas as a Tool for Peace: the Hirondelle Experience
^ Philippe Dahinden

381

32 The Use and Abuse of The Media and the Rwanda Genocide Media in Vulnerable Societies
Mark Frohardt and Jonathan Temin

389

33 Censorship and Propaganda in Post-Genocide Rwanda
^ Lars Waldorf

404

34 PG – Parental Guidance or Portrayal of Genocide: the Comparative Depiction of Mass Murder in Contemporary The Media and the Rwanda Genocide Cinema
Michael Dorland

417

35 The Responsibility to Report: a New Journalistic Paradigm
^ Allan Thompson

433

Bibliography

447

Index

455

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^ UNITED NATIONS NATIONS UNIES
THE SECRETARY-GENERAL
---
MESSAGE TO SYMPOSIUM ON THE MEDIA
AND THE RWANDA GENOCIDE

Carleton University The Media and the Rwanda Genocide School of Journalism and Communication Ottawa, 13 March 2004

When, on 7 April, people around the world commemorate the 10th anniversary of the Rwanda genocide, that observance should be filled not only with remorse, but The Media and the Rwanda Genocide with resolve.

We must remember the victims – the hundreds of thousands of men, women and children abandoned to systematic slaughter while the world, which had the capacity to save most of them, failed The Media and the Rwanda Genocide to save more than a handful, forever sullying the collective conscience. We must also help the survivors still struggling with the physical and psychological scars. But most of all, we must pledge The Media and the Rwanda Genocide – to ourselves as moral beings and to each other as a human community – to act boldly, including through military action when no other course will work, to ensure that such a The Media and the Rwanda Genocide denial of our common humanity is never allowed to happen again.

The United Nations has now had ten years to reflect on the bitter knowledge that genocide happened while UN peacekeepers The Media and the Rwanda Genocide were on the ground in Rwanda, and to learn lessons that all humankind should have learned from previous genocides. We are determined to sound the alarm about emerging crises and to help countries tackle the The Media and the Rwanda Genocide root causes of their problems. I expect soon to appoint a United Nations special adviser on the prevention of genocide, and to make other proposals for strengthening our action The Media and the Rwanda Genocide in this area.

It is encouraging to know that the news media are also undertaking a process of self-examination as we collectively remember this tragedy. Media were used in Rwanda to spread The Media and the Rwanda Genocide hatred, to dehumanize people, and even to guide the genocidaires toward their victims. Three journalists have even been found guilty of genocide, incitement to genocide, conspiracy and crimes against humanity by the The Media and the Rwanda Genocide International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. We must find a way to respond to such abuses of power without violating the principles of freedom, which are an indispensable cornerstone of democracy.

I am The Media and the Rwanda Genocide glad that you are confronting these and other questions, including the role of the international media, especially at a school where future journalists are being trained. Such training must include reflection on The Media and the Rwanda Genocide the responsibilities of their chosen profession.

There can be no more important issue, and no more binding obligation, than the prevention of genocide. The world has мейд some progress in understanding The Media and the Rwanda Genocide the responsibility to protect. Yet it is still not clear, were the signs of impending genocide to be seen somewhere today, that the world would mount an effective response. I hope that all of The Media and the Rwanda Genocide us, as diplomats, journalists, government officials or just concerned citizens, will act promptly and effectively, each within our sphere of influence, to halt genocide wherever it occurs – or better still, to The Media and the Rwanda Genocide make sure there is no 'next time'.

Preface

It was the French philosopher, Voltaire, who wrote: 'We owe respect to the living; to the dead we owe only truth.'

In the case of the The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 1994 genocide in Rwanda, the news media accomplished neither of Voltaire's admonitions. Confronted by Rwanda's horrors, Western news media for the most part turned away, then muddled the story when they The Media and the Rwanda Genocide did pay attention. And hate media organs in Rwanda – through their journalists, broadcasters and media executives – played an instrumental role in laying the groundwork for genocide, then actively participated in the The Media and the Rwanda Genocide extermination campaign.

On the eve of the tenth anniversary of the Rwanda genocide, the School of Journalism and Communication at Carleton University in Ottawa hosted a one-day symposium on 13 March The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 2004, entitled 'The Media and the Rwanda Genocide.' The symposium examined in tandem the role of both the international media and Rwanda's domestic news organizations in the cataclysmic events of 1994. The Carleton symposium brought together The Media and the Rwanda Genocide for the first time an international collection of experts as well as some of the actors from the Rwandan drama; it also inspired this collection of papers. Many of The Media and the Rwanda Genocide the contributions found here are based on papers delivered at the Carleton event, but others were commissioned or have been reprinted here because of their valuable contribution to the debate.

The symposium was The Media and the Rwanda Genocide мейд possible by generous contributions from the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) and the Government of Canada, through the Global Issues Bureau of the Foreign Affairs department and the Canadian International The Media and the Rwanda Genocide Development Agency. The IDRC has also played a key role in the publication of this collection; it continues to support Carleton's efforts to build a Media and Genocide Archive and to establish a The Media and the Rwanda Genocide partnership with the School of Journalism and Communication at the National University of Rwanda in Butare through a project called The Rwanda Initiative.

I would like to thank all those The Media and the Rwanda Genocide who contributed to the symposium and to this collection, most notably the authors of the papers you are about to read. Special thanks are due to Chris Dornan, who was director of the The Media and the Rwanda Genocide School of Journalism and Communication when this project began, Pamela Scholey and Bill Carman from the IDRC, Roméo Dallaire, who lent considerable moral support to this project, and Sandra Garland, who did The Media and the Rwanda Genocide wonderful work as a copy-editor. Finally, I would like to thank my wife Roula El-Rifai and our son, Laith Rifai-Thompson. My passion for Rwanda has often consumed time and energy The Media and the Rwanda Genocide that should have been devoted to my family.

For my part, I came to Rwanda late. Before joining the faculty at Carleton in 2003, I was a career journalist with The Media and the Rwanda Genocide the Toronto Star. I was not in Rwanda in 1994. I first visited in 1996 to report on the repatriation of Hutu refugees from the Goma region of what was then eastern Zaire. But Rwanda The Media and the Rwanda Genocide does get inside you and, since then, I think I have been trying to some degree to make amends for not having been there in 1994. Reviewing the Toronto Star archives, I The Media and the Rwanda Genocide found an article of mine published on 9 April 1994. I had forgotten ever having written it; perhaps it left my memory because it was such a dreadful piece of journalism. Written three days The Media and the Rwanda Genocide into the genocide, the article focused entirely on the evacuation of Canadian expatriates from Kigali and invoked every cliché of tribal conflict, chaos and anarchy.

Two months later, in early June, while Roméo Dallaire The Media and the Rwanda Genocide and his beleaguered contingent watched helplessly as the slaughter continued in Rwanda, I reported for the Star from Normandy, France, where then Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chrétien was participating The Media and the Rwanda Genocide in ceremonies to mark the fiftieth anniversary of D-Day. In my experience, major events taking place elsewhere in the world often become a preoccupation for the journalists reporting on such international gatherings The Media and the Rwanda Genocide. But as I recall, during that weekend of speeches and press conferences in Normandy commemorating a war that ended half a century earlier, there was nary a mention of what was going The Media and the Rwanda Genocide on at that moment in Rwanda. None of the leaders mentioned the Rwanda genocide. Nor did any in the media throng covering the D-Day commemorations ask about Rwanda.

The collection you The Media and the Rwanda Genocide are about to read explores the role of hate media in the Rwanda genocide and examines international media coverage of the genocide. Then it turns to an assessment of the guilty verdict The Media and the Rwanda Genocide in the international criminal tribunal for Rwanda's 'Media Trial' and finally concludes with a section on the aftermath, examining the current media climate in Rwanda, media intervention strategies and the place The Media and the Rwanda Genocide of the Rwanda genocide in popular culture.

The purpose of looking back at the media's role in the Rwanda events is not just to remember. We still have some learning to do The Media and the Rwanda Genocide on this subject and examining the way journalists and news organizations conducted themselves in 1994 is not just a historical exercise. Sadly, we don't yet seem to have fully discerned The Media and the Rwanda Genocide or absorbed the lessons from Rwanda.

Ultimately, this collection is dedicated to those who perished in 1994. To underline the point, I would like to borrow a comparison used by British journalist, Scott The Media and the Rwanda Genocide Peterson. To understand the number of dead, imagine that every word in this book is the name of a victim. This entire volume would list only 200,000 of the dead, a fraction of the The Media and the Rwanda Genocide estimated toll of nearly one million people. As you read this collection, look at every word. Then think of someone you know.

Allan Thompson
Ottawa, 2006

^ Notes on Contributors

Emmanuel C. Alozie is university professor The Media and the Rwanda Genocide of media communications at Governors State University, University Park, Illinois. His research interests are in development communication, international/cultural journalism, advertising and public relations. Alozie is former assistant editor The Media and the Rwanda Genocide with Democratic Communiqué, author of Cultural Reflections and the Role of Advertising in the Socio-economic and National Development of Nigeria (2005, Edwin Mellen Press), and co-edited, Toward the Common Good: Perspectives in International Public The Media and the Rwanda Genocide Relations (2004, Ally & Bacon).

^ Jean-Marie Biju-Duval is a Paris-based lawyer who was engaged as the defence counsel for Ferdinand Nahimana, the former Rwandan media executive who was convicted in the The Media and the Rwanda Genocide Media Trial.

Gerald Caplan is a leading Canadian authority on genocide prevention. He is the author of Rwanda: The Preventable Genocide, the 2000 report of the International Panel of Eminent The Media and the Rwanda Genocide Personalities appointed by the Organization of African Unity to investigate the 1994 Rwanda genocide. He is also founder of Remembering Rwanda, the Rwanda genocide tenth anniversary memorial project and has developed and teaches a course The Media and the Rwanda Genocide on the role of the media in the Rwanda genocide.

^ Frank Chalk is a professor in the Department of History, Concordia University, Montreal, Canada, and the co-director of the Montreal The Media and the Rwanda Genocide Institute for Genocide and Human Rights Studies. He is co-author (with Kurt Jonassohn) of The History and Sociology of Genocide.

Anne Chaon is a journalist with Agence France-Presse (AFP). In the The Media and the Rwanda Genocide first weeks of the 1994 Rwanda genocide, she was based in Paris, working on AFP's Africa desk. She reported from Rwanda for AFP in June, before heading to eastern Zaire in July of The Media and the Rwanda Genocide that year. She testified against RTLM media executive Ferdinand Nahimana in Paris and before the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda in the Media Trial.

^ Jean-Pierre Chrétien is The Media and the Rwanda Genocide a historian and co-author of Rwanda: les médias du Génocide. He has held teaching positions at l'École normale supérieure du Burundi, l'Université de Lille III, and since The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 1973 has been a researcher in African history at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) in Paris.

^ Philippe Dahinden is a Swiss journalist who is cofounder of and former editor-in-chief at The Media and the Rwanda Genocide the Hirondelle Foundation, an international organization of journalists that establishes media operations in crisis areas. He founded and managed the independent radio station, Radio Agatashya, which covered Rwanda, Burundi and The Media and the Rwanda Genocide the Kivu after July 1994 in an attempt to counter the destructive messages of hate radio. He also set up and managed Radio Okapi in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

^ Roméo Dallaire is The Media and the Rwanda Genocide a retired Lieutenant-General. He led the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) to help implement the Arusha accords. He is the author of Shake Hands with the Devil The Media and the Rwanda Genocide: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda and now sits in the Senate of Canada as a member of the Liberal party.

^ Michael Dorland is professor of communication in the School of Journalism and The Media and the Rwanda Genocide Communication at Carleton University. A former film critic before his return to the academy in 1992, his current research concerns the medical aspects of Holocaust survival.

Mike Dottridge was a desk officer with The Media and the Rwanda Genocide Amnesty International during the 1980s, covering Rwanda and other countries in the Great Lakes region. At the time of the genocide (and until 1995) he was supervising Amnesty's work throughout sub-Saharan Africa. He The Media and the Rwanda Genocide is currently a consultant on human rights issues.

^ Richard Dowden was Africa editor for a British newspaper, the Independent, in 1994. He is now director of the Royal African Society.

Mark The Media and the Rwanda Genocide Doyle has worked for the BBC since 1986 and was its east Africa correspondent in 1993–94. He spent much of the period of the genocide in Rwanda and, on several occasions, he was The Media and the Rwanda Genocide the only foreign reporter in Kigali.

Alison Des Forges is senior advisor to the Africa division of Human Rights Watch. She is also the author of ^ Leave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda The Media and the Rwanda Genocide and has served as expert witness in genocide proceedings at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, U.S. Federal Court, and in Belgian and Swiss courts.

Mark Frohardt is Internews Network's The Media and the Rwanda Genocide regional director for Africa and former deputy chief of mission for the United Nations Human Rights Field Operation in Rwanda (May 1995 to June 1997).

^ Tom Giles covered the Rwanda genocide The Media and the Rwanda Genocide as a producer for BBC News. He won a Royal Television Society award in 'international current affairs' for his Panorama production on the war in Iraq – In the Line of Fire.

Jean-Marie The Media and the Rwanda Genocide Vianney Higiro is an associate professor in the Department of Communication at Western New England College in Springfield, Massachusetts. From 31 July 1993 to 6 April 1994, he was director of the Rwandan Information Office (ORINFOR) in Kigali The Media and the Rwanda Genocide.

Lindsey Hilsum was one of only two Western journalists on the ground in Rwanda at the time of the genocide and is in a unique position to describe media The Media and the Rwanda Genocide coverage of the genocide and the disproportionate attention paid to the plight of Hutu refugees who had fled to Goma. She is China correspondent for Channel 4 News in Britain.

Nick Hughes is The Media and the Rwanda Genocide a British director/cameraman who captured some of the only known media images of killings during the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. He later testified as a prosecution witness before the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda The Media and the Rwanda Genocide, where his footage was entered as a piece of evidence, exhibit 467, in the trial of George Rutaganda. Hughes later produced the film 100 Days, the first cinematic treatment of the Rwanda The Media and the Rwanda Genocide genocide.

^ Marcel Kabanda is a Rwandan historian and a consultant with the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) in Paris. He is also a co-author of Rwanda: les médias du The Media and the Rwanda Genocide Genocide.

Charity Kagwi-Ndungu is a trial attorney with the United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and was a prosecutor in the Media Trial.

^ Thomas Kamilindi is a former The Media and the Rwanda Genocide Radio Rwanda journalist, based in Kigali. He resigned a few months before the genocide started. He was among the many liberal Hutus accused of sympathizing with the Tutsi-led rebel forces of The Media and the Rwanda Genocide the Rwandan Patriotic Front and narrowly escaped death during the genocide. In 2005, he left Rwanda, where he had been working as a BBC correspondent, to accept a Knight-Wallace Fellowship at the University The Media and the Rwanda Genocide of Michigan.

Mary Kimani is a journalist who covered the Media Trial and conducted a series of interviews with an RTLM journalist. The work reported in this volume formed part of a thesis completed The Media and the Rwanda Genocide for a master's degree in communication psychology at the University of Warnborough, Canterbury, United Kingdom.

^ Alan Kuperman is assistant professor at the LBJ School of Public Affairs, University of The Media and the Rwanda Genocide Texas at Austin.

Darryl Li is completing a PhD in Anthropology and Middle Eastern Studies at Harvard University and a JD at Yale Law School. In three months of fieldwork, he explored the impact The Media and the Rwanda Genocide of RTLM on its listeners by interviewing dozens of Rwandans who were part of the station's audience and who admitted to taking part in the genocide.

^ Steven Livingston is associate The Media and the Rwanda Genocide professor of political communication and international affairs and director, School of Media and Public Affairs, The George Washington University.

Linda Melvern is an investigative journalist and author of A People Betrayed: The Role The Media and the Rwanda Genocide of the West in Rwanda's Genocide and ^ Conspiracy to Murder: The Rwandan Genocide.

Charles Mironko is a cultural anthropologist whose work focuses on genocide perpetrators. He was formerly Associate The Media and the Rwanda Genocide Director of the Genocide Studies Program at Yale University, and chief of the Culture Section at the Organization of African Unity. He is currently a Humanitarian Officer in Darfur, under the African The Media and the Rwanda Genocide Union Mission in Sudan.

Simone Monasebian was a trial attorney with the United Nations International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and one of the prosecutors in the Media Trial. Later, she was principal defender The Media and the Rwanda Genocide at the Sierra Leone tribunal before her appointment as chief of the New York office of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime as well as a CourtTV legal analyst.

Binaifer Nowrojee The Media and the Rwanda Genocide is Lecturer on Law at Harvard Law School. She was counsel with Human Rights Watch/Africa and the author of the Human Rights Watch report, ^ Shattered Lives: Sexual Violence during the The Media and the Rwanda Genocide Rwandan Genocide and its Aftermath. She has testified as an expert witness before the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda on sexual violence and in 2005 became director of the Open Society Initiative The Media and the Rwanda Genocide for East Africa.

Edgar Roskis (1952–2003) was a journalist with Le Monde diplomatique and a senior lecturer in the Department of Information and Communication, Université Paris-X, Nanterre, France.

^ Jonathan Temin is a senior programme The Media and the Rwanda Genocide officer with the CHF International and former programme associate with Internews Network.

Lars Waldorf is currently affiliated with the World Policy Institute at The New School. From 2002 to 2004, he ran The Media and the Rwanda Genocide Human Rights Watch's field office in Rwanda. He is now writing a book on the genocide trials before Rwanda's community courts (gacaca).

^ Melissa Wall is a journalism professor at California State University The Media and the Rwanda Genocide, Northridge. A former journalist, she has trained journalists in Ethiopia and researched township newspapers in Zimbabwe.

Allan Thompson is a professor at Carleton University's School of Journalism and The Media and the Rwanda Genocide Communication. He joined the faculty at Carleton in 2003 after spending 17 years as a reporter with the Toronto Star, Canada's largest circulation daily newspaper. He worked for a decade as a correspondent for The Media and the Rwanda Genocide the Star on Parliament Hill in Ottawa and also undertook frequent reporting assignments in Africa, reporting from Rwanda a number of times. At Carleton, he leads the Rwanda Initiative, a media capacity The Media and the Rwanda Genocide-building partnership with the journalism school at the National University of Rwanda.

1
Introduction

Allan Thompson

The images are so disturbing they are difficult to watch. Two women kneel amid the bodies of those who have The Media and the Rwanda Genocide already been slain. They are at the side of a dirt road in Kigali, the capital of Rwanda. Their final moments are captured on video by a British journalist, one of The Media and the Rwanda Genocide only a few foreign reporters left in the country, who is recording clandestinely from the top of a building nearby.1 Remarkably, during a genocide that claimed as many as a million The Media and the Rwanda Genocide lives, this is one of the only times a killing is recorded by the media. In the footage, one of the women is pleading, first clasping her hands in front of her, as if The Media and the Rwanda Genocide in prayer, then throwing open her arms, appealing to the throng of men who are milling about nearby, holding machetes and sticks. Further along the road are the bodies of others who have The Media and the Rwanda Genocide been dragged out of their homes and killed. The woman continues to beg, but the men seem to be oblivious to her. A young boy dressed in a T The Media and the Rwanda Genocide-shirt strolls past, giving the women only a backward glance. At one point, you can see a man in the crowd clutching something in his left хэнд. It appears to be a The Media and the Rwanda Genocide radio.

Minutes go by and the woman continues to plead for her life. The other figure crouched beside her barely flinches. Men wielding sticks in one хэнд and machetes in the other The Media and the Rwanda Genocide move forward and begin to pound the bodies that are strewn around the two women, striking the corpses again and again. One man gives the bodies a final crack, as if driving a stake The Media and the Rwanda Genocide into the ground, then slings his stick over his shoulder and ambles off. All the while, the woman continues to wave her arms and plead. A white pickup truck approaches and drives The Media and the Rwanda Genocide through the scene. The windshield wipers are flopping back and forth. One of the men huddled in the back of the vehicle waves a хэнд at the woman who is kneeling The Media and the Rwanda Genocide on the ground. He taunts her with a greeting.

Finally, two other men approach. One, dressed in dark trousers and a white shirt, winds up to strike the pleading woman. He The Media and the Rwanda Genocide has the posture of someone who is about to whip an animal. She recoils. Then he strikes her on the head with the stick he is clutching in his right хэнд. She The Media and the Rwanda Genocide crumples to the ground, then suffers more blows from her murderer. Almost at the same moment, the other woman is struck down as well by another assailant, her head very nearly lopped off by The Media and the Rwanda Genocide the initial blow. Finally, the two men walk away casually, leaving the bodies to squirm. In the distance, there is the sound of birdsong.

The date is 18 April 1994, nearly two weeks after the The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 6 April plane crash that claimed the life of Rwandan President Juvénal Habyarimana and plunged Rwanda into the abyss. The tiny central African country, a mere dot on the world The Media and the Rwanda Genocide map, garnered virtually no international media attention before the killing spree that followed the president's death. No one had paid much attention to a fledgling peace accord signed in Arusha, Tanzania in The Media and the Rwanda Genocide 1993, setting out the details for a power-sharing arrangement between the majority Hutu population and the minority Tutsi, represented in the talks by the rebels from the Tutsi-dominated Rwandan Patriotic The Media and the Rwanda Genocide Front (RPF). An international peacekeeping force, commanded by a Canadian general, Roméo Dallaire, was dispatched to oversee implementation of the accord. Dallaire and his peacekeepers were only vaguely aware of the The Media and the Rwanda Genocide mounting tensions in the autumn of 1993, but heard rumblings about a 'third force' – Hutu extremists who opposed the power-sharing arrangement.

The voice of Hutu Power was the private radio station RTLM, established by The Media and the Rwanda Genocide extremists who surrounded the president. And RTLM was an echo of other extremist media, notably the newspaper Kangura. Once the president's plane was shot down by unknown assailants, the The Media and the Rwanda Genocide message from RTLM was unmistakable: the Tutsi were to blame; they were the enemy and Rwanda would be better off without them. The killings began almost immediately in Kigali through the The Media and the Rwanda Genocide night of 6–7 April. Hutu moderates, who were willing to share power, were among the first targeted, along with Tutsi marked for extermination in a campaign that eventually fanned out across the country. Many of The Media and the Rwanda Genocide the hundreds of thousands of Rwandans who were slaughtered had huddled in churches for sanctuary. Death squads lobbed in grenades. In their frenzy, killers severed the Achilles tendons on the The Media and the Rwanda Genocide heels of their victims, so they could return and finish the job later. Teachers killed students, neighbours slaughtered neighbours as local officials helped organize the killing.

In its 2003 verdict in the 'Media Trial The Media and the Rwanda Genocide' of executives from RTLM and Kangura, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) confirmed the undoubted role of Rwandan hate media in the killing:

The newspaper and the radio explicitly and The Media and the Rwanda Genocide repeatedly, in fact relentlessly, targeted the Tutsi population for destruction. Demonizing the Tutsi as having inherently evil qualities, equating the ethnic group with 'the enemy' and portraying its women as seductive enemy agents, the The Media and the Rwanda Genocide media called for the extermination of the Tutsi ethnic group as a response to the political threat that they associated with Tutsi ethnicity. (ICTR 2003: para. 72)

(The full text of the The Media and the Rwanda Genocide judgement summary can be found in ^ Part Three of this collection.)

Most international news organizations initially misunderstood the nature of the killing in Rwanda, portraying it as the result of tribal warfare The Media and the Rwanda Genocide, rather than genocide. Much of the international coverage focused on the scramble to evacuate expatriates from the country. In mid-April, when the killing intensified, the volume of news reports actually declined The Media and the Rwanda Genocide. Most journalists had left along with the other foreigners.

The grainy video captured on 18 April by Nick Hughes, who was positioned on the top floor of the French School, is truly the The Media and the Rwanda Genocide exception that proves the rule. Hughes looked first through the scope of a rocket launcher, borrowed from a Belgian soldier stationed in the school. Then he trained his camera on what he saw The Media and the Rwanda Genocide taking place in the road below. Hughes would recount later that he had to stop shooting at several points for fear that his lone remaining battery pack would expire and, as a The Media and the Rwanda Genocide result, there are 'jump cuts' in the video at points when he briefly turned off his camera. Because he was shooting from such a distance, the sound on the audio track is the background The Media and the Rwanda Genocide noise in the school and, occasionally, the voice of Hughes and an associate. 'She's praying over the person that has just been killed,' he comments at one point. 'They're going The Media and the Rwanda Genocide to kill her, you can see that,' he says later.

Eventually, the international media reports on Rwanda were replete with images of bloated corpses, strewn at the roadside or choking Rwanda The Media and the Rwanda Genocide's rivers. But because there were so few foreign journalists on the ground at the height of the killing and because the domestic media had either been cowed or co-opted The Media and the Rwanda Genocide into the massacres, there are no other known images of the crime itself, the crime of genocide. Would the world have reacted differently if confronted daily by images of people being slaughtered rather The Media and the Rwanda Genocide than the static, disembodied pictures of disfigured corpses? More informed and comprehensive coverage of the Rwanda genocide, particularly in those early days, might well have mitigated or even halted the The Media and the Rwanda Genocide killing by sparking an international outcry. The news media could have мейд a difference. But within Rwanda, the only news media making a difference were hate media, such as RTLM, which proved instrumental The Media and the Rwanda Genocide in fanning the flames and implicating tens of thousands of ordinary people in the genocide.

Journalists could have had an impact in Rwanda – a sort of Heisenberg effect – had there been a The Media and the Rwanda Genocide significant enough media presence to influence events. The Heisenberg effect, named for German physicist Werner Heisenberg, describes how the act of observing a particle actually changes the behaviour of that particle, its velocity or The Media and the Rwanda Genocide direction. Arguably, more comprehensive and accurate reporting about the Rwanda genocide could have changed the behaviour of the perpetrators, mitigating the slaughter. Instead, the lack of international media attention contributed to what The Media and the Rwanda Genocide I would call a sort of inverse Heisenberg effect. Through their absence and a failure to adequately observe and record events, journalists contributed to the behaviour of the perpetrators The Media and the Rwanda Genocide of the genocide – who were encouraged by the world's apathy and acted with impunity.

At every turn, it seems, we return to this troubling equation, implicating news media – both within Rwanda and The Media and the Rwanda Genocide internationally – in the genocide. In looking back on this period, it is important to examine the role of domestic hate media and the international media in tandem in one collection of The Media and the Rwanda Genocide papers. As uncomfortable as this connection may seem, we cannot separate the two. We are looking at the role of the media, the power of its message and the impact of an information The Media and the Rwanda Genocide vacuum.

There is a considerable and growing body of literature on the Rwanda genocide in general and the role of the media in particular. Indeed, a number of authors have focused intently on the The Media and the Rwanda Genocide role of hate media in fostering and fomenting the genocide and that important work is reflected and elaborated upon in the collection of papers you are about to read. This The Media and the Rwanda Genocide collection takes the crucial step of juxtaposing analysis of the Rwandan media with analysis of coverage by the international media, thus encouraging a broader reflection on the role of the media as a whole The Media and the Rwanda Genocide. No other publication brings together both sides of the topic in this way. The role of hate media in the Rwanda genocide is in some ways self-evident. But it The Media and the Rwanda Genocide is not so clear, or at least not as universally accepted, that international media played a role in the genocide as well.

In the autumn of 1994, French journalist Edgar Roskis, wrote The Media and the Rwanda Genocide in Le Monde Diplomatique of 'un genocide sans images', a genocide without images. His article, translated and reprinted in this collection, underlines the point that because most foreign journalists fled the country, the The Media and the Rwanda Genocide indisputable crime of genocide very nearly went unrecorded. Roskis cites French photographer, Patrick Robert, who was working in Rwanda at the time for the Paris-based Sygma photo agency. 'There were six The Media and the Rwanda Genocide American correspondents,' Robert recounted. 'They had scarcely arrived when their editors gave them all orders to come home. At the Hôtel des Mille Collines, I picked up snatches of their The Media and the Rwanda Genocide conversations: "Too dangerous, not enough interest ... deep Africa, you know ... middle of nowhere."'

From 6 April until the middle of May, when the bulk of the genocide took place, Rwanda was still relegated The Media and the Rwanda Genocide to the inside pages of most newspapers, Roskis notes. The photos that were published were small and often old, the accounts second-hand, with little if any news appearing for days at a time.

The The Media and the Rwanda Genocide international media really only began to pay attention once Hutu refugees began to pour out of Rwanda into neighbouring countries. As Roskis contends, it was the 'humanitarian melodrama' of Goma that finally The Media and the Rwanda Genocide garnered the full attention of the international media. The Rwanda genocide was a media event, without question. And yet, it never quite graduated to the rank of 'mega-event', the kind of The Media and the Rwanda Genocide sensation that frequently attracts hundreds of international reporters, camera crews and satellite uplinks.

There is irony here. Dallaire continues to insist that with an intervention force of 5,000 troops, he could have put The Media and the Rwanda Genocide a halt to the killing. But the world's power brokers – chief among them the United States, Great Britain and France – used their positions on the United Nations Security The Media and the Rwanda Genocide Council to argue against intervention. The lack of focused, persistent media coverage of events in Rwanda only served to help the cause of those foot-draggers who did not want to get involved. Many blame The Media and the Rwanda Genocide American unwillingness to be drawn into Rwanda on 'Somalia fatigue', a reference to its humiliating withdrawal from Mogadishu in 1993 after 18 US rangers died in an abortive mission. The bodies of some of The Media and the Rwanda Genocide the helicopter pilots were later mutilated and dragged through the streets of the Somali capital by a jeering crowd. Canadian journalist, Paul Watson, then working for the Toronto Star, captured a Pulitzer The Media and the Rwanda Genocide-prize-winning photograph of the body of one of the American pilots as it was being hauled through the streets. That searing media image was published by many US newspapers and The Media and the Rwanda Genocide is widely credited with prompting the Clinton administration to withdraw from Somalia.

A media image contributed to US withdrawal from one African mission. A year later, at the height of The Media and the Rwanda Genocide the Rwanda genocide, the lack of media images probably helped the cause of those in Washington, London, Paris and other major capitals who wanted to avoid mounting an international intervention in another African The Media and the Rwanda Genocide country. As Dallaire puts it in his overview chapter in this collection, the world turned its back on Rwanda, not least because international news organizations initially downplayed the story. The Rwanda genocide, as The Media and the Rwanda Genocide a news event, simply did not break through.

By most accounts, there were only two foreign journalists in Rwanda on 6 April 1994, when Habyarimana's plane was shot down: Katrin van der Schoot, a The Media and the Rwanda Genocide freelance Flemish reporter for Belgian radio, and Lindsey Hilsum (the author of 'Reporting Rwanda: the Media and the Aid Agencies', in Part Two of this collection). Hilsum was in Rwanda The Media and the Rwanda Genocide on a temporary contract for UNICEF, although she also worked as a freelance reporter for the BBC, the Guardian and the Observer. As Hilsum recounts in her paper, some Nairobi-based journalists The Media and the Rwanda Genocide managed to move southward from Uganda with the RPF. Others – among them the BBC's Mark Doyle, who recounts his experiences in this volume – persuaded a World Food Programme official in Entebbe The Media and the Rwanda Genocide to fly them into Kigali on a plane being used to evacuate foreigners. A few others drove up from Burundi, but for most of April, there were no more than 10 to 15 reporters The Media and the Rwanda Genocide in the country at any time.

As Hilsum describes, most of the journalists were Africa specialists, but even they did not understand what was happening at first. 'With a shooting war The Media and the Rwanda Genocide in the east and the north and massacres in much of the country, for most of April it was genuinely confusing,' Hilsum writes. The journalists who did remain were mainly British, French and Belgian The Media and the Rwanda Genocide. Most US reporters had been ordered to leave by their employers because it was too dangerous. Although a significant number of reporters arrived on the scene shortly after the killing began, most The Media and the Rwanda Genocide were there with instructions to cover the attempts to rescue foreign nationals. And all but a handful left along with the evacuees in mid-April. There was virtually no 'real time' TV The Media and the Rwanda Genocide news out of Rwanda for the first weeks of the genocide because it was too risky to send an expensive satellite uplink into the country. The first satellite uplink was erected The Media and the Rwanda Genocide in Kigali only in late May, after the RPF had secured the airport.

As French journalist, Anne Chaon, notes in her contribution to this collection, the media muddled the story from The Media and the Rwanda Genocide June onward, when the French military began 'Operation Turquoise' in southwest Rwanda. 'Dozens of reporters returned to Rwanda. And while they were able at that time to discover the enormity of the killing The Media and the Rwanda Genocide campaign in this area ... they reported also on the humanitarian and military intervention from abroad. The result was that the reality of genocide was, once again, submerged in too much information.'

* * *

This The Media and the Rwanda Genocide collection of papers grew out of the 13 March 2004 symposium at Carleton University, organized by Canada's best-known and oldest journalism school. The purpose of the event was to make a direct The Media and the Rwanda Genocide and explicit connection between the conduct of Rwandan media in the genocide and the role played by the international media. Like the symposium, the collection of papers follows the same structure The Media and the Rwanda Genocide, with an added фокус in the final section on events since 1994 and the current state of the media in post-genocide Rwanda.

A substantial introductory section includes a historical overview by Gerry The Media and the Rwanda Genocide Caplan, author of the Organization of African Unity report, Rwanda: the Preventable Genocide (IPEP 2000). Retired Canadian General Roméo Dallaire speaks from the unique vantage point of a key player during the period, with first The Media and the Rwanda Genocide-hand knowledge of the role of the media, his failed attempts to shut down or jam RTLM hate radio and his efforts to attract international media attention to the The Media and the Rwanda Genocide genocide in Rwanda. Dallaire argues that hate media were essentially the soundtrack of the genocide and were deployed as a weapon. He also recounts how, in his view, the international media influenced events by their The Media and the Rwanda Genocide absence, at a time when so much attention was focused on the war in the Balkans, where white Europeans were the victims.

This central contention – that local hate media fomented the The Media and the Rwanda Genocide genocide and international media essentially facilitated the process by turning their backs – is the crux of this collection of papers. This collection is, in essence, a journey through the media role The Media and the Rwanda Genocide in the events in Rwanda, a journey that has not yet reached its destination.

^ HATE MEDIA IN RWANDA

It is logical to begin with an examination of the evolution of hate media The Media and the Rwanda Genocide in Rwanda and the particular role played by radio station RTLM and the newspaper Kangura. Alison Des Forges, senior advisor to Human Rights Watch's Africa Division and the author of the definitive work The Media and the Rwanda Genocide Leave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda (Des Forges 1999), sets the scene with a broad historical overview of the development of hate media in Rwanda and the world's failure The Media and the Rwanda Genocide to deal effectively with the phenomena. French historian Jean-Pierre Chrétien, co-author of Rwanda: les Médias du Génocide (Chrétien et al. 1995), traces the evolution of The Media and the Rwanda Genocide RTLM in Rwandan society. He describes how the organizers of the genocide plotted to use the airwaves to instill the notion of 'the democratic alibi', justifying the extermination of the Tutsi on the grounds The Media and the Rwanda Genocide that they posed a threat to the majority Hutu. Marcel Kabanda, a Rwandan historian and also co-author of Rwanda: les Médias du Génocide (Chrétien et al. 1995), focuses The Media and the Rwanda Genocide on the role of print media in the lead-up to the genocide, specifically the bimonthly newspaper Kangura. Jean-Marie Higiro, now an associate professor in the Department of Communication at The Media and the Rwanda Genocide Western New England College in Springfield, Massachusetts, was director of the Rwandan Information Office in Kigali from 31 July 1993 to 6 April 1994. He examines the impact of the private print press on Rwandan politics before the The Media and the Rwanda Genocide genocide. Darryl Li, explores more fully the impact of RTLM on its listeners by interviewing dozens of Rwandans who were part of the RTLM audience and admitted to taking part in the genocide The Media and the Rwanda Genocide. Charles Mironko uses data from interviews with nearly 100 confessed genocide perpetrators to analyze critically the relationship between the rhetoric of ethnic hatred so prevalent among Rwandan political elites and the The Media and the Rwanda Genocide forces that propelled ordinary Rwandan Hutu to participate in killing Tutsi. Kenyan journalist Mary Kimani, who worked for a number of years with Internews Rwanda, uses a detailed content analysis of recordings of The Media and the Rwanda Genocide RTLM broadcasts to make the case that individual broadcasters – not their guests or government officials – were most likely to use the airwaves to disseminate hate.

And finally we hear from Thomas Kamilindi The Media and the Rwanda Genocide, a former Radio Rwanda journalist based in Kigali, who later worked as a freelance correspondent in Rwanda for the BBC and other media outlets. In a personal reporter's memoir, he recounts how The Media and the Rwanda Genocide he resigned from state-run radio in Rwanda a few months before the 1994 genocide started because he had sometimes been asked to broadcast news repugnant to him.

^ INTERNATIONAL MEDIA COVERAGE The Media and the Rwanda Genocide OF THE GENOCIDE

Part Two turns to the other side of the equation to examine the role of international media coverage of the genocide. The contention is that while hate media in The Media and the Rwanda Genocide Rwanda contributed to the genocide by playing a proactive role, the international media also played a role by, in essence, acquiescing to the killing campaign by downplaying it. But that is the critique writ large The Media and the Rwanda Genocide. Through a combination of journalistic memoirs from reporters who were in the field and academic studies by observers of the international media coverage, this section canvasses such issues as the The Media and the Rwanda Genocide responsibility of individual journalists and the constraints faced by journalists reporting from war zones.

The first contributor is Mark Doyle, the BBC journalist who spent more time on the ground in Rwanda The Media and the Rwanda Genocide during the genocide than any other foreign reporter. His paper navigates the first days of the genocide through the eyes of a reporter and, notably, includes numerous extracts from the transcripts of his crucial The Media and the Rwanda Genocide broadcasts from Rwanda in the midst of the killing. He discusses his own deliberations over when and how to use the word genocide to describe what was going on around him. Anne The Media and the Rwanda Genocide Chaon is a journalist with Agence France-Presse, who worked on AFP's Africa desk in Paris during the first weeks of the genocide, then reported from Rwanda in The Media and the Rwanda Genocide June before heading to eastern Zaire in July. Chaon takes issue with the conventional wisdom that individual journalists missed the story in Rwanda and, instead, argues that journalists did the best they could under The Media and the Rwanda Genocide the circumstances and that the problem was that readers and decision-makers didn't care about a tiny country in Africa. As one of only two foreign reporters on the ground when the The Media and the Rwanda Genocide genocide began, Lindsey Hilsum is in a unique position to describe media coverage of the genocide and the disproportionate attention paid in July and August to the plight of Hutu The Media and the Rwanda Genocide refugees who had fled to Goma, in eastern Zaire. She contends that the complex political causes of the exodus to Goma were not understood by the public nor by many of the The Media and the Rwanda Genocide journalists who covered Goma as a humanitarian story. Steven Livingston, associate professor of political communication and international affairs at The George Washington University in Washington, DC, analyzes American television coverage of The Media and the Rwanda Genocide the genocide and concludes that the US stood at arm's length from events in Rwanda in the spring of 1994 because policymakers believed their predecessors in the George H.W. Bush administration The Media and the Rwanda Genocide were lured into Somalia by television pictures. Linda Melvern, investigative journalist and author of A People Betrayed: The Role of the West in Rwanda's Genocide (Melvern 2000) and Conspiracy to Murder: The Rwandan The Media and the Rwanda Genocide Genocide (Melvern 2004), argues that international media contributed directly to the genocide by misconstruing the killing in the first weeks as spontaneous, tribal warfare rather than a systematic campaign to exterminate a minority. Nigerian The Media and the Rwanda Genocide-born researcher Emmanuel Alozie is one of the few to seriously examine African media coverage of the genocide. Alozie, professor of media communications at Governors State University in Illinois, analyzes coverage of the The Media and the Rwanda Genocide Rwanda genocide in The Nation newspaper in Kenya and Nigeria's Guardian and makes some comparisons with African media coverage of Darfur a decade later. Nick Hughes, the British cameraman The Media and the Rwanda Genocide and later film producer, describes the important footage he captured in Rwanda, one of the only known instances of a killing during the genocide recorded by the media. Mike Dottridge, who was a The Media and the Rwanda Genocide desk officer with Amnesty International at the time of the genocide, takes a step back from the issue of media coverage to explore the fact that so little attention was paid to The Media and the Rwanda Genocide events in Rwanda before the genocide, particularly in the late 1980s and between 1990 and 1994, despite abundant evidence of unrest. His paper situates the three and a half years of inaction The Media and the Rwanda Genocide, as RTLM broadcast its messages of hate, in a broader context in which journalists and others based outside Rwanda share responsibility for this inaction.

Part Two also reprints accounts by several journalists who reported The Media and the Rwanda Genocide from Rwanda during the genocide, including Tom Giles, who was a BBC producer in Rwanda in 1994, and Richard Dowden, who was Africa editor for the British newspaper the Independent at the The Media and the Rwanda Genocide time. It also includes the piece by French journalist Edgar Roskis, who wrote in Le Monde Diplomatique in the autumn of 1994 about the impact of the lack of images from the The Media and the Rwanda Genocide Rwanda genocide. We also reprint a paper by Alan J. Kuperman, now assistant professor at the University of Texas. Kuperman argues that international media were guilty of several key lapses: they mistook the killing for The Media and the Rwanda Genocide a resumption of the civil war, grossly underestimated the death counts, left en masse at a critical moment and those who remained focused almost exclusively on Kigali. The exploration of international The Media and the Rwanda Genocide media coverage of the genocide is rounded out with an analysis by Melissa Wall, a journalism professor of news magazine coverage at California State University, Northridge. Wall, whose paper was first published The Media and the Rwanda Genocide in Gazette: The International Journal for Communication Studies, discovered several disturbing themes in coverage: Rwandan violence was the result of irrational tribalism, Rwandan people were little better than animals, the The Media and the Rwanda Genocide violence was incomprehensible, neighbouring countries were just as violent and only the West was capable of solving Rwanda's problems.

^ JOURNALISM AS GENOCIDE – THE MEDIA TRIAL

Part Three explores the 3 December 2003 guilty verdict The Media and the Rwanda Genocide in the so-called 'Media Trial' before the ICTR. The tribunal convicted Ferdinand Nahimana, Jean-Bosco Barayagwiza and Hassan Ngeze of genocide, direct and public incitement to commit genocide, conspiracy to commit genocide and crimes The Media and the Rwanda Genocide against humanity (persecution and extermination). Nahimana and Barayagwiza were the directors of RTLM, which was found to have fanned the flames of hate and genocide in Rwanda. Ngeze was The Media and the Rwanda Genocide the editor of the extremist newspaper Kangura. The full text of the summary of the verdict, issued by judges Navanethem Pillay, Erik Møse and Asoka de Zoysa Gunawardana, is included in this The Media and the Rwanda Genocide section as a key reference document.

The rest of the section explores the Media Trial from four key vantage points. Simone Monasebian, who was one of the trial attorneys with the ICTR and a The Media and the Rwanda Genocide prosecutor in the Media Trial, focuses specifically on RTLM broadcasts before 6 April 1994. She argues that the world community had grounds to intervene well before RTLM used its broadcasts to goad the killers The Media and the Rwanda Genocide and that RTLM broadcasts after 6 April could not have had the impact they did without the several months of conditioning of the population. In a direct retort to Monasebian The Media and the Rwanda Genocide, Jean-Marie Biju-Duval, a Paris-based lawyer who served as defence counsel for Ferdinand Nahimana, takes issue with the legal arguments that were central to the guilty verdict in the Media Trial. Biju-Duval The Media and the Rwanda Genocide attacks the tribunal's ruling on the question of the criminality of the propaganda that was broadcast and published before 6 April 1994, when the attack on the president's plane precipitated the The Media and the Rwanda Genocide massacres and genocide of April to July 1994, during which he concedes the media did make direct calls for extermination. Charity Kagwi–Ndungu, who was also a prosecutor in the trial, examines the difficulty The Media and the Rwanda Genocide of prosecuting the crime of incitement to genocide in print media. She argues, 'The challenge is how to counter war propaganda and speeches in the future that jeopardize the lives of The Media and the Rwanda Genocide minority groups.' Finally, Binaifer Nowrojee, author of Shattered Lives: Sexual Violence During the Rwandan Genocide and its Aftermath (Nowrojee 1996) focuses on the direct link between the sexually graphic and offensive depiction The Media and the Rwanda Genocide of Tutsi women in the pages of Kangura before the genocide and the brutal sexual violence and rape that became a stock in trade of the killers during the genocide. Nowrojee takes The Media and the Rwanda Genocide issue with the Rwanda tribunal's failure to prosecute journalists specifically for inciting sexual violence.

^ AFTER THE GENOCIDE AND THE WAY FORWARD

Part Four of this collection explores issues that emerged after The Media and the Rwanda Genocide the Rwanda genocide – such questions as appropriate strategies for media intervention in such a situation, the role of the media in peace-building and in cases where the media in vulnerable societies are being abused The Media and the Rwanda Genocide. This concluding section also looks at the media climate in Rwanda and, finally, the portrayal of the Rwanda genocide in popular culture.

Frank Chalk, co-director of the Montreal Institute for The Media and the Rwanda Genocide Genocide and Human Rights Studies and co-author of ^ History and Sociology of Genocide: Analyses and Case Studies (Chalk and Jonassohn 1990), makes blunt recommendations for aggressive intervention in situations where media The Media and the Rwanda Genocide are being manipulated. Chalk recommends three possible forms of intervention: early-stage interventions in conflict situations where mass killing has not begun; medium-stage interventions in societies just beginning to suffer genocidal The Media and the Rwanda Genocide massacres; and late-stage interventions launched when genocide is underway, which could require actually destroying the transmitters and printing presses of the hate media outlets.

Philippe Dahinden, a Swiss journalist, focuses on his The Media and the Rwanda Genocide experience founding and managing the independent station Radio Agatashya, which covered Rwanda, Burundi and the Kivu after July 1994 in an attempt to counter the destructive messages of hate radio. This The Media and the Rwanda Genocide led to the creation of the Hirondelle Foundation, an international organization of journalists that establishes media operations in crisis areas.

Mark Frohardt, Africa regional director for Internews and former deputy chief of The Media and the Rwanda Genocide mission for the United Nations Human Rights Field Operation in Rwanda (May 1995 to June 1997), describes a groundbreaking analysis on the role of media in vulnerable societies. According to Frohardt and co-author Jonathan Temin The Media and the Rwanda Genocide, vulnerable societies are highly susceptible to movement toward civil conflict or repressive rule or both. They advocate structural interventions, such as strengthening domestic and international journalist networks; content-specific interventions The Media and the Rwanda Genocide, such as issue-oriented training; and aggressive interventions, such as radio and television jamming.

The current media climate in Rwanda is the subject of a paper by Lars Waldorf, a former Human Rights Watch The Media and the Rwanda Genocide staffer in Rwanda. He describes how an authoritarian regime in Rwanda continues to justify censorship and propaganda as a necessary safeguard against the recrudescence of genocide. Waldorf contends that after The Media and the Rwanda Genocide the RPF stopped the genocide and took control in July 1994, it retooled the previous regime's information agency and the official media to disseminate its own propaganda.

Carleton University professor Michael Dorland writes about the The Media and the Rwanda Genocide place of the Rwanda genocide in popular culture, with particular reference to the film 'Hotel Rwanda'. Dorland, an expert on the Holocaust film genre, reflects on what happens to this genre when The Media and the Rwanda Genocide the subjects are not Jewish.

Finally, in an epilogue written in 2006 – some twelve years after the genocide – I reflect on what, if anything, has changed in the meantime. If we The Media and the Rwanda Genocide can't figure out the structural flaws in the news media that resulted in the failure to provide adequate coverage of the Rwanda genocide or the more recent crisis in Darfur, surely The Media and the Rwanda Genocide that difficulty should not prevent us from trying to change the structure one small piece at a time, through the work of individual journalists. The collection ends with a rallying cry The Media and the Rwanda Genocide to journalists, to assume their responsibilities.

It is our hope that this collection of papers will foster a more critical and comprehensive examination of the role of the news media in the Rwanda The Media and the Rwanda Genocide genocide. The stark reality is that all these years later, we have barely begun to learn the lessons of Rwanda.

NOTES

1. A copy of the raw footage shot by journalist Nick Hughes has been deposited The Media and the Rwanda Genocide in the Media and Genocide Archive at Carleton University. The footage was also entered as Exhibit 467 at the trial of Georges Rutaganda before the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda The Media and the Rwanda Genocide in Arusha, Tanzania.

REFERENCES

Chalk, F. and K. Jonassohn. 1990. History and Sociology of Genocide: Analyses and Case Studies. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, 624 pp.

Chrétien, J.P., J.F. Dupaquier and The Media and the Rwanda Genocide M. Kabanda. 1995. Rwanda: les Médias du Génocide. Karthala, Paris, France. 397 pp.

Des Forges, A. 1999. Leave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda. Human Rights Watch and the International Federation The Media and the Rwanda Genocide of Human Rights Leagues, New York, NY, USA. Available at (accessed 30 August 2005).

ICTR (International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda). 2003. Summary judgement. In ^ The Prosecutor v. Ferdinand Nahimana, Jean-Bosco Barayagwiza, Hassan Ngeze. ICTR The Media and the Rwanda Genocide-99–52-T. ICTR, Arusha, Tanzania, 3 December. Available at
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